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Geography notes for secondary school

Geography notes for secondary school

 Geography notes for secondary school | Form one to form four notes geography| Competence based notes for geography subject

Form one

1.0: Concept of geography

2.0:Solar system

3.0: Major features of the earth



Form two

1.0: Human activities


3.0: Water management for economic development

4. Sustainable usee of forest resources

5.0: Sustainable mining

6.0: Tourism

7.0: Manufacturing industry

8.0: Sustainable power and energy resources

9.0: Transport

Form three

1.0: Structure of the earth

2.0: Forces that affect the earth

3.0: Soil

 4.0: Elementary survey 

Map reading and interpretation| Application of statistics 

 6.0:Photograph reading and interpretation

form four

1.0:Introduction to geographic research

 2.0:Climate and natural climatic regions

3.0:Human population

4.0: Settlement

5.0: Environmental issues and management 

Download geography Tanzania institute of education books here. These books helps you to give access of materials related to education curriculum in Tanzania

What is Geography?

Geography is a subject taught in Tanzania curriculum, this subject deals with interrelationship between human being and environment. originally Geography comes from greek word Geo means earth and graphien means describe, generally means Geography is the study of description of the earth.

Geography subject focuses on preparation of students to interact with all different geographical phenomenon, also students could become experts of geography to do various tasks in geography field.

How many branches of geography?

Geography has three branches which are physical geography, human and economic geography and practical geography. All these branches play a crucial roles to our community.

Physical geography deals with various physical features and various phenomenon found in our environment such as soil erosion, landslide, earthquake and volcanic eruption.

Human and economic geography deals with interaction of human being with environment. such as fishing, mining, agriculture activities, transportation, lumbering, tourism and manufacturing industry.

Practical geography deals with map work, research, survey, statistics map making and photograph

Generally, all these branches drives the knowledge of geography to students and make them to become important expert to Tanzania nation.

Why is important to study geography?

  1. 1. Understanding the Environment: Geography helps Tanzanian students understand their natural environment, including the landforms, climate, water bodies, and ecosystems. This knowledge is crucial for sustainable resource management and environmental conservation efforts. Such as management of Kilimanjaro mountain and forestry reserves

  2. 2. Economic Development: Geography plays a important role in understanding economic activities such as agriculture, mining, tourism, and trade. By studying geography, Tanzanian students can analyze the distribution of resources, transportation networks, and trade routes, which are essential for economic development and planning.

  3. 3. Cultural and Social Context: Geography provides insight into the cultural diversity and social dynamics within Tanzania. Students learn about different ethnic groups, languages, religions, and traditions, which fosters a sense of national identity and unity.

  4. 4. Global Perspective: Geography helps Tanzanian students understand their country's place in the world. They learn about global issues such as climate change, migration, and globalization, and how these factors impact Tanzania and the broader international community.

  5. What is geographical phenomenon?

  6. Geographical phenomenon refers to the features, situation or events which cause can be explained by geographical interest. Examples of Geographical phenomenon are earthquake, mass wasting, climatic condition, drought Tsunami and soil erosion. These geographical phenomenon interrelate with one another, such as Climate of an area influence growth of forests and also deforestation lead to soil erosion.

Scenario of geography topics ordinary level
Geography topics arranged in sequence to ensure students understand from beginning to the end. In briefly form one starts with introduction of geography that's make students to have concept of geography and then there are topics such as map work, weather, climate and major features of the earth which have relationship with other topics to other classes. For example a student learn map work in form one and map reading and interpretation in form three.

The basis of ordinary level helps students to develop their study in advanced level and tertiary level


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