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7.0: Manufacturing industry

7.0: Manufacturing industry


Manufacturing industry

The concept and importance of manufacturing industries

Concept from this subtopic

a.              Define manufacturing industry

b.              Importance of manufacturing industries

Manufacturing industry is the processing and changing raw materials into finished goods by using machine or tools. Manufacturing industry is also referred as secondary industry because they use the products of primary industries. Such as agriculture and mining products. Manufacturing industry contribute to the national development because human being depends from all products produced from Industry for their daily activities. Such as clothes, foods, transport.

Industrialization refers to the establishment of industries in a given area.

Importance of manufacturing industries

(i) It is source of employment opportunity. Both skilled and unskilled labours are employed in industrial sectors that help them to raise their living standard and improve quality of life.

(ii) It leads to the development of agriculture sector. Manufacturing industry depends on primary industries product like agriculture sector. Presence of industries at a certain area encourage agriculture production to produce raw materials.

(iii) It stimulates development of infrastructure. These means of transport are useful for transportation of raw materials to industry center, therefore there is high demand of building quality infrastructure that connect to industry center.

(iv) Reduce dependence on imported goods because the country depends to their own goods produced form industries.

(v) Improve international relationship. Through trade interaction of importing and exporting of goods bring close relationship with different countries.

(vi) Increase national income. Industrial sectors become as a part of economic development over the world because they contribute higher percentage through payment of taxes to the government.

(vii) It encourages development of science and technology. Industrial sectors need investment from science and technology for high production that enforce any country to invest on training experts and technology application.

7.2: Types of manufacturing industries

a.              Describe types of manufacturing industries in East Africa

b.              Identify products of each type of manufacturing industry

Types of manufacturing industries

Manufacturing industries can be categorized into two major types; processing industries and fabrication industries

(i) Processing industries

These are industries use raw materials from primary industries. For example, of processing industries are;

 (i) Chemical industries these industries produce specialised products such as acid, medicine, soaps and fertilizer. For example of industries in Tanzania are Zenufa laboratories and unilever that deals with detergents, soaps and other products.

(ii) Craft industry encompasses goods that are handmade by artisans or those skilled in a particular trade. Small businesses engaged in the craft trade include everything from art galleries to handmade textiles to culinary products. Such as iron smelting, basket making and pottery. For example Nyumba ya sanaa in Dar es salaam, Makonde handcraft village and Kwanza collection.

(iii) Food and beverage processing industries. This deal with preparation of food stuffs. Such as Chai bora, Coca cola and Azam company.

(iv) Textile processing industries such as Musoma textile (Mutex), Mwanza textile (Mwatex) and Karibu textile Mills ( KTM).

(v) Metallurgical industries

It deals with the production of iron and steel as raw materials in engineering industries for example Aluminum Africa Limited

(ii) Fabrication industries

These are industries use processed raw materials to produce new products. For example industries use steel to make machinery.

Note: industries can be classified as heavy or light industries. Heavy industries involve production of bulky or heavy products like iron and steel while light industries involve manufacturing of light products like cosmetics, food processing industries and plastic.

Types of manufacturing industries in East Africa

i.Chemical industries

ii.Food and beverage industries

iii.Textile industry

iv.Mineral extraction industries

v.Lumbering industries

vi.Fuel and power industries

7.3: Factors for location of manufacturing industry

Factors influencing the location of manufacturing industries

(i) Availability of capital. A lot of money is needed to establish industries because of various demands such as land, raw materials and machines. The location of industries nearly to town has high cost especially cost of land than village area

(ii) Transport and communication network. Industries should be link from their source of raw materials, labourers, water supply and market center, most common means of transport used in East Africa are roads, railway, water and air transport.

(iii) Market. Industries should be located area connected to market center that facilitates the growth of industry.

(iv) Power supply. Industries depend on presence of electricity and fuel to run machine. High power generated influence industrial development to a certain location.

(v) Labour supply

(vi) Government policies. There are policies based on social environment impact, political issues, and pollution. The government could support or opposite some of area to be established industries, for example in urban area industries are prohibited because of environmental pollution also area with political conflict such as civil war is not potential for industries.

(vii) Water supply

(viii) Industrial inertia

Tendency of remaining old industry in a place while there is no favouring factors for location of that industries. This can be caused by either expesive of shifting industries, presence of skilled labour and non skilled labour and availability of raw materials

Types of industrial pollutants

(i) Gas.

 Industries emit harmful smoke and gases into atmosphere. Such as nitrogen oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and sulphur dioxide.

Effect on employees

Inhalation of harmful gas. Employees suffer due to inhale harmful gas that affect their lungs and health in general.

Effect on the environment

Formation of acidic rainfall. Carbon dioxide and other gases contact with water vapor in atmosphere which lead to formation of acidic rainfall which is not suitable for human and animals use.

Soil infertility. Increase of acidic to soil destroy soil health that not supportive for plants growth.

Global warming. The increase of gases in atmosphere lead to trap of sun heat which lead to the increase of temperature.

Effect on community

Ihale harmful gas. This may affect people's lungs and health deterioration.

Decline of agriculture. Acidic rainfall affect soil formation and also increase of temperature could affect plant growth.

Air pollution with bad smells. Gases pollute environment that make people living uncomfortable.

(ii) Liquids

Liquids pollutants come from liquid wastes such as oils, sewage or industrial waste pollutants.

Effect on employees

It may cause skin disease. This can be caused by accidental contact with liquid

Effect on environment

Pollution of water sources

Loss of biodiversity

It leads to unproductive soil

Effect on the community

Decline of agriculture activities

Decline of fishing activities

(iii) solid waste or particulates

Industries produce solid wastes such as plastics, dust particles, bottles and cans which pollute environment

Effect on employees

Physical injuries

Difficult breathing

Effect on environment

Uproductive soil

Disturb plant growth

Effect on community

Physical injuries. This can be caused by sharp broken bottles and iron tools.

Difficult breathing. The presence of dust encounter people's ability of breathing.

Unproductive crops. The increase of dust on leaves. disturb plants growth due to lack of plants transportation

(iv) Noise

This is unwanted and disturbing sound. Usually industries produce sounds from machine.

Effect on employees

Lose hearing ability

It may cuase headache

Effect on the environment

Soil erosion

Migration of people and animals

Effect on the community

Loss of hearing

Affect people's sleepiness

Ways of reducing industrial pollution

Locating industries away from settlement.

The use alternative source of energy which are environment friendly. Such as solar power and hydro electric power.

Lubrication of machine parts.

To ensure complete combustion of fuel. This helps to reduce extent of air pollution

Wastes should be treated before disposal

Encourage re-use and recycling.

To enact proper rules and policy. Proper rules and policy help to find appropriate area for industrial location and proper management of wastes.

Focal studies

Car manufacturing industries in Japan

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is located in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Taiwan in the south.

Japan is a leading producer of car manufacturers before German, United Kingdom, China and south Korea. The major industrial centres are Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe and Yawata.

Japan produce various types of vehicles such as Suzuki, Mitsubishi, Isuzu and Toyota.

Factors contributing to the development of industries in Japan

Adequate capital

Power supply. The country developed on production of hydroelectric power and nuclear energy that provide power to industries.

Availability of reliable market

Reliable labour supply.

Development of science and technology

Good transport and communication system.


Electronic Equipment industry in South Korea

South Korea is situated in East Asia. It occupies the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. The country is bordered by North Korea to the north, the East Sea (Sea of Japan) to the east, the East China Sea to the south, and the Yellow Sea to the west, to the south east it is separated from the Japanese island of Tsushima by the Korea Strait. South Korea makes up about 45% of the peninsula’s land area. The capital city is Seoul.

It is one of highly industrialized country manufacturer of electronic devices such as television, radio, cell phone, calculators and computer software.

Factors lead to growth of south Korea's electronic industry.

(i) Availability of capital.

(ii) Development of technology

(iii) Government support

(iv) Well developed infrastructure

(v) International relations

(vi) Improved research

(vii) Availability of energy.

The textile industry in Tanzania

Textile industries deal with manufacturing of clothes from cotton, wool, silk as well as rayon. Textile industries in Tanzania was develoed in the 1970's as part of government effort to industrialization. For example of textile industries in Tanzania are; Kilimanjaro textile mills ( KILTEX), Mwanza textile Mills ( MWATEX) and Musoma textile Mills ( MUTEXT).

Challenges facing textile industry in Tanzania

(i) outdated machinery.

(ii) Competition. Industries are faced by second hand clothes such as (mitumba) and other imported high quality products.

(iii)  Poor management. Management of industries have dominated by corruption and poor decision making.

(iv) Poor infrastructure

(v) lack of capital

(vi) high cost of power

(vii) insufficient power and energy

Ways of encouraging the development of textile industry in Tanzania

(i) Government support

(ii) formulation of favourable policies for indusrial development

(iii) Improvement of infrastructure

(iv) provision of education to ensure sufficient educated labour supply.

(v) To improve market research.

(vi) supportive Capital.

Lesson from Japan and south Korea industries for Tanzania

(i) Proper management of industry. Both industries engage on proper management of industries and utilization. Those countries are not engage in corruption system.

(ii) Well developed infrastructure. Transport system facilities transportation of raw materials to industrial centre and also transportation of goods to market centres.

(iii) investment in research. Both countries invested to ensure good products and reliable market.

(iv) Training and development of workers. Japan and South korea have allocated enough funds to enhance education to workers.

(v) Production of high quality products. Their industries produce high product than our our countries.

(vi) Reliable source of power and energy. They have hydro-electric power and nuclear energy which make the reliable power supply.

(vii) Spirit of commitment and hard work. Workers in Japan and South Korea are committed to accomplish their duties.



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