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3.1: Concept of population

Concepts from this subtopic

a.               Define the term population

b.              Describe characteristics of human population

c.               Explain the importance of studying population

Definition of human population

Human population refers to the number of people living in a certain area at a given period of time.

Characteristics of human population

(i)Population size

Refers to the number of people in a particular area.

It may occur in a country, region, ward, district and villages. For example, Tanzania population 2022 is about 63.59million.

(ii) Population distribution

Refers to how people spread out across the earth’s surface. Some area is highly habited and some area are not inhabited at all.

(iii) Population density

Refers to the number of people per unit area. It usually noted per particular area in square kilometres. For example, 2012 population census in arid region population density was low as 50 people per kilometres square and 3000 people per square kilometres in cities

(iv) Population structure

 refers to composition of population as determined proportional number of male and female in each age group

(v)  It is subjected by problems. For example, Famine, drought and wars.

(vi) It differ in a level of development

Importance of studying population

(i)It helps government to determine number of skilled and unskilled labour

(ii)It essential in planning for public service development. For example, roads, and schools

(iii)It helps to know characteristics of human population. For example, size, composition and structure.

(iv)It helps to control population growth

(v)It enables the government in provision of better health services. For example, hospitals

(vi)It helps to know employed and unemployed people through census

3.2: population distribution

Concept from this subtopic

q    To describe factors governing human population and distribution

Human population distribution refers to the way people spread out on the land.

Usually human population is unevenly distribution (some area are living by people, some area is sparse population and some area are not habited at all) because of physical, social-economic, demographic and political factors.

Types of human population distribution

The world population distribution can be categorised into three groups;

a.               Densely populated areas

b.              Moderate populated areas

c.               Sparsely populated areas

(a) Densely populated area: These are area inhabited by large number of people. For example, Dar es salaam, Arusha, Mwanza and Mbeya.

(b) Moderately populated areas: These areas are inhabited by a moderate number of people. These areas have limited resources for example Iringa, Tabora and Morogoro.

(c) Sparsely populated areas: These are areas which have fewer people. Usually found in rural areas. These areas have fewer resources for supporting inhabit of people. For example, Manyara, Singida, Pwani and Dodoma

Factors governing human population and distribution

no single factors responsible for dense or sparse population. Those factors are interrelating to each other collectively.

Physical factors

(i) Climate

Area with high rainfall influence high number of people to live in a particular area while desert and semi desert areas have low or no population because of low rainfall. The population is dense in area where rainfall is well distributed and support agriculture activities for example northern highland of Tanzania and coastal region. Region like singida and Dodoma are sparse populated because of climatic problem

(ii) Relief

Gentle slope areas influence formation of fertile soil due to washing down materials and also these areas support building construction and development of transport and communication for example Dar es salaam that influence people to live those areas. While high land has low temperature and difficult for building construction that could not attract people to live those areas for example mount urugulu in Morogoro

(iii) Vegetation

Areas with thick forests does not influence dense population due to inaccessible of area for settlement establishment, also area with grass vegetation influence better soil formation that gives chance for agriculture activities to take place. These areas are inhabited by moderated people.

(iv) Soil

Area with a good fertile soil support establishment of settlement while area with infertile soil discourage establishment of settlement that may lead to sparsely population

(V) Minerals resources

People are attracted to establish settlement in mining centres. For example, Mirerani (tanzanite) and Shinyanga (Gold).

(vi)Water resources

People are always attracted to establish settlement in area with water sources such as rivers, lake and ocean. For example in Tanzania area populated by people are Coastal area like Tanga, Dar es salaam and lake area like Mwanza and Kigoma

(vii) Natural hazards

People are discouraged living in area affected by natural hazards such as floods, volcanic eruption and earthquake.

(b)Biological factors

(i)Pests and diseases

Area affected by pests and disease are mostly has low number of population for example Dodoma are affected by eye problem.

(c) Human factors

(i)Historical factors

Some of area have been affected by civil war that cause depopulation in those area, and also labour reserve during colonial period influenced increase number of people in area like Tanga, Tabora and Kilwa, while caused decrease of people in region like Kigoma, meanwhile Kigoma region received refugees from Rwanda and Burundi that increases the population

(ii)Political factors

Area with political stability influences increase of population for example Tanzania while area with political instability lead to decrease number of people for example Somalia, Congo and Burundi

(iii)Economic factors

Area with industry, trade, mining and services centres influences high population, in Tanzania those areas like Dar es salaam, Mwanza, Mbeya and Arusha.

(iv)Social factors;

Such as social services are education, health services, water, transportation and electricity influences high number of people than area with no those social services like rural areas

3.3: Population change

Concepts from this subtopic

a.               define population change

b.              Explain factors which influences population changes

c.               Explain effects population change to an individual and nation

Population change is the decrease or increase of population in a specific period of time. Increase or decrease population can change by positive growth and negative growth.

The main factors for population change;






Fertility refers to the ability to conceive and produce a child. 

Sub fertility is low level of fertility

Infertility refers to inability of woman to conceive a child.

Child bearing age refers to the period whereby woman conceive a child from 15- 49 years

There are several measures used in fertility analysis

-                      Crude birth rate ( CBR)

-                      General fertility rate (GFR)

-                      Child woman ration (CWR)

(a) Crude birth rate is the number of live births per thousand of the total population in a year.


For example, if a mid-year population of Tanzania in 2012 was 40,000,000 people with the total live births were 1,500,000 find CBR;



Therefore, the Crude birth rate is 38

Crude birth rate more than 30 is considered high and less than 18 per 1000 people is considered high. Therefore 2012 Tanzania population seems to be high that needs government to spend much in social service.

(b) General Fertility rate (GFR) Refers to the proportion of children born alive per thousand women in the reproductive period in a year.


Assume the number of reproductive aged women (15-49) in Tanzania was 2,700,000 in 2012 where as the number of live births in the same year was 180,000. Find the GRF in Tanzania for 2012.


= 67

Therefore, GRF is 67

(c) Child Woman Ratio Rate (CBR) is the number of children 1-4 years per thousand women of child bearing (15-49)

Assume the number of children under age 5 (1-5) in 2012 was 3 153 122 whereas the number of women of reproductive age (15-49) was 3 771 496. Calculate the CWR for that period. CWR


= 836

Therefore, the CWR is 836. The result shows that 836 under five children could be born per 1000 to women of child bearing age. This high CWR arises because the CWR for least developed countries is 710 relatives to developed countries whose CWR is below 300. Hence, the higher the number of women of child bearing age, the more the under five children are likely to be in a country

Mortality(Death) refers to the occurrence of deaths in a population.

Mortality is measured as follows;

-Crude Death rate

-Infant Mortality rate (IMR)

-Child Mortality Rate

Crude Death Rate (CDR) is the number of deaths per thousand of the total population in a specified geographic area in a year.


Take example as 40,000,000 for total population and 1,000, 000 deaths in a year,


Crude death rate = 25

Therefore, the CDR is 25. This result shows that 25 deaths were likely to occur out of 1000 people in a given year. This is a high crude death rate. It indicates that the government has to spend more resources on health and nutrition services to reduce the death rates.

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of infants under one year of age (0-11 months of age) per 1000 live births in a given year. Infants (children under one year of age) are at high risk of death than any other age group.

 It is obtained by using the following formula:


Take example country X had 548,000 livebirths in 1992 and registered 74528. Find infant mortality rate



Therefore, the IMR is 136. The result indicates that 136 infants under 1 year of age were likely to die out of 1000 live births. This is high IMR as compared to developed countries whose IMR is below 10. It shows that the government has to invest more in maternal health services.


Child Mortality Rate (CMR) is the number of deaths of children (that is 1-4 years of age per 1000 children 1-4 years of age).

It is a sensitive indicator of the health status of a community.

 It is obtained by the following formula:

The number of under five deaths in country D in 2010 was 74 528 while live births were 420,000.  Calculate CMR


 = 177

Therefore, the CMR is 177. The result shows that 177 children were likely to die before reaching the age of five. This implies that the government has to invest more in health, nutrition and maternal services for children.

Life expectancy Refers to the average time for a person to live in a population   


Migration is the movement of individuals or group of people from one place to another which involves temporary or permanent changes of usual residence.

Migrant is a person who moves and crosses a certain administrative boundary to another.

Migration affect the size of population, age and sex structure and level of urbanization

Measure of migration is called Net Migration Rate (NMR).


When number of migrant is negative it means more people are leaving the country than people moving into it.

But if the population is positive it means more people are moving into it than people leaving the country.

Take example there are 100,000 emigrants and 200,0000 immigrant and total population is 800,000 in 2010.


 Therefore, NMR is 125 that shows there is high number of immigrants than emigrants.


Characteristics of migration

   i.         Migration is selective in nature. Not all people move in area, under certain circumstance people moves from one place to another, mostly males are likely to migrate than girls.

 ii.         Human migration is two ways process. In one direction has its compensation movement to opposite direction.

iii.         People move to area with availability of opportunity.

iv.         Human migration is inversely proportional to distance; It means increase of distance the decrease of migration, people are likely to move from Iringa to Morogoro than Iringa to Dar es salaam because of distance

  Causes of Migration 

Migration can be explained under the push and pull factors 

Push factors these are factors that encourage emigration (out migration) and discourage immigration (In migration) for example poor social services, negative social cultural practice, war, natural calamities, diseases, climatic change and unemployment


Pull factors these are the factors that encourage immigration (in migration) and discourage Emigration (out migration) For example, Availability of social service, presence of peace and security, availability of employment opportunities, Presence of recreation activities and resorts, availability of conducive environment for investment, availability of favorable climatic condition.  

Causes of migration/factors influencing migration 

There are many reasons why people choose to migrate. The following are some of them;

Pull and push factors for migration

1. Social factors; there are several social reasons which influence migration such as



-Clean and safe water supply

-Medical services


2. Economic reasons; Creation of wealth. People migrate to other countries with aim of making wealth quickly for example Tanzanians move to South Africa for Employment opportunities. Also move to areas where employment is possible for example rural to rural to work in plantations and mines

Trade of 17th and 18th century is an example of forced migration (Involuntary).

3. Environmental factors; Good environmental attract people to move in that area for doing different activities such as agriculture and trade, example of environmental condition can be explained in;


-Soils; Areas with fertile soils are suitable for agriculture, thus attracts people to move to those areas. For example, the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and the Usangu valley in Mbeya have fertile soils that motivate people to move or go to those areas for agricultural purposes.

-Relief; Area with gentle slope is suitable for people living than area with steep slope because gentle slope is suitable for settlement

- Natural resources; resources such as mining attracts people such as Merarni Arusha

4. biological factor; Areas free from pests and diseases like malaria and cholera attract people to live in that area

3. Political factors; Political instability, like civil wars cause people to migrate for example, like that of Rwanda and Burundi has resulted to influx of refugees in East African countries where they are safe.

4. Natural factors. Natural disasters, Epidemic diseases, floods, earthquakes, drought may cause people to migrate to better areas where it is safe.


Classification of migration

There are two types of migration

a.     Internal migration

b.     External migration

Internal migration is the movement of people within the country without crossing international boundaries.


Types of internal migration

a.      Rural to urban migration

b.     Urban to rural migration

c.      Rural to rural migration

d.     Urban to urban migration


Rural to Urban migration is the movement of people from rural area to urban especially young and energetic people.

Causes of rural to urban migration

      i.         Presence of better health service

     ii.         Education

   iii.         Employment opportunity

    iv.         Trade activities

     v.         Clean and safe Water supply

Negative impact of rural to urban migration (area of origin)

      i.         Decline of agriculture activities

     ii.         lack of man power

   iii.         separation of family

    iv.         poor utilization of resources

positive impact of rural to urban migration (area of destination)

      i.         it stimulates market growth

     ii.         increase supply of labours

   iii.         development of technology

    iv.         it stimulates development of industries


negative impact of rural to urban migration (area of destination)

      i.         environmental pollution

     ii.         scarcity of employment opportunity

   iii.         increase of crime

    iv.         corruption

     v.         increase of burden for provision of social services

Urban- to rural migration is the movement of people from urban to rural area.

-This is common to retired and unskilled people from urban

- It occurs most in developed countries

Causes of urban to rural migration

      i.         They avoid air and noise pollution

     ii.         Lack of job opportunity in urban

   iii.         Lack of space in town to locate industries

    iv.         Criminal act in town; people moves from town because of insecurity

     v.         Voluntary willing. Mostly retired people moves from urban to rural for resting after working for a long period of time

Negative impact of urban to rural migration (destination area)

      i.         Land conflicts with residents in rural area

     ii.         Increase of land and house price.

   iii.         It causes land degradation and deforestation

    iv.         Decline of agriculture; this is caused by interaction of different people from urban

     v.         Decline of agriculture activities; since most of arable land turned into residential area.

    vi.         Environmental pollution, such as air pollution, noise pollution and water pollution.

  vii.         Prostitution

 viii.         Corruption

    ix.         Drug abuse

     x.         Robbery


Negative impact of urban to rural migration (origin area)


      i.         It reduces labour force

     ii.         It affects the market of selling and buying products and services


Positive impact of urban to rural migration (destination area)

      i.         Development of technology

     ii.         Supply of labour force in rural area. For example Kilombero, Dakawa and Ifakara

   iii.         It stimulates market growth


Positive impact of urban to rural migration (origin area)


      i.         It reduces population pressure in urban

     ii.         It helps for environmental conservation.

   iii.         It reduces the burden faces the government in provision of social services

    iv.         It reduces number of beggars and street children



Rural-rural migration is the movement of people from one rural area to another.

Causes of rural to rural migration

      i.         Employment opportunity

     ii.         Fertile land

   iii.         Good transport and communication

    iv.         Area with peace and harmony

     v.         Good health services provision

    vi.         Education

  vii.         Electric supply

 Negative impact of rural to rural migration (a place of origin)

      i.         It reduces labour force

     ii.         It reduces the income in the area

   iii.         It leads to decline of agriculture activities

    iv.         it leads to food scarcity


Negative impact of rural to rural migration (a place of destination)

      i.         shortage of social services

     ii.         it leads to environmental pollution

   iii.         shortage of job opportunity

    iv.         increase of crime

     v.         increase number of beggars

    vi.         Land conflicts


Positive impact of rural to rural migration (a place of destination)

      i.         It adds labour and market for good and services produced

     ii.         It enhances social interaction between ethnic groups, such as intermarriage.

Positive impact of rural to rural migration (a place of origin)


      i.         Sending money back at home.

     ii.         It reduces pressure to resources

   iii.         It helps people to come back with knowledge at home



Rural-rural migration is the movement of people from one rural area to another.

Causes of rural to rural migration

      i.         Employment opportunity

     ii.         Fertile land

   iii.         Good transport and communication

    iv.         Area with peace and harmony

     v.         Good health services provision

    vi.         Education

  vii.         Electric supply


Negative impact of rural to rural migration (a place of origin)

  1. It reduces labour force
  2. It reduces the income in the area
  3. It leads to decline of agriculture activities
  4. it leads to food scarcity


Negative impact of rural to rural migration (a place of destination)

  1. shortage of social services
  2. it leads to environmental pollution
  3. shortage of job opportunity
  4. increase of crime
  5. increase number of beggars
  6. Land conflicts


Positive impact of rural to rural migration (a place of destination)

      i.         It adds labour and market for good and services produced

     ii.         It enhances social interaction between ethnic groups, such as intermarriage.

Positive impact of rural to rural migration (a place of origin)

  1. Sending money back at home.
  2. It reduces pressure to resources
  3. It helps people to come back with knowledge at home


International migration

 International migration is the movement of people crossing of national or international boundaries and change of residence for any period longer than six (6) months.

International migration can be categorised into immigration and emigration.

Emigration refers to the act of a person leaving one’s own country to go and live in another country. Such a person is called an emigrant.

Immigration is the act of a person coming into a foreign country to stay. Such a person is called an immigrant.


Causes of international migration


      i.         Economic factors for example trade and employment opportunity

     ii.          Social factors, for example better provision of health service

   iii.         political factors, for example area with political stability experience immigrants than area with political instability

    iv.         Biological factors. For example, area absence of pest and disease has high number of immigrants than area with experience pest and disease such as malaria


Negative effect of international migration (area of origin)

      i.         Depopulation

     ii.          labour shortage

   iii.         drain of skills (brain drain) and technology 

    iv.         Poor exploitation and utilization of resources.

     v.          There can also be a decline in the production process due to underutilisation of resources, resulting in increasing poverty, 

    vi.         low life expectancy. This is caused by poor health service and shortage of food due to poor production.

Positive consequences of international migration in the origin countries

      i.         It solves the problem of high population. The government can decide to move people from densely areas to sparsely populated areas by establishing resettlement schemes or villages in other areas with low population.

     ii.         Planned migration can facilitate the provision of services and labour mobilisation. The mobilised labour can make full utilisation of the resources available such as land for the development of various economic opportunities, including the establishment of industries. 

   iii.         It helps to conserve environment

    iv.         It helps to reduce unemployment rate


Negative consequences of international migration in the destination

      i.         It leads increasing pressure on limited resources and social services such as medical services, education, and markets.

     ii.         low life expectancy can follow.

   iii.          Increase in crime killings

    iv.         Drug abuse

     v.         Prostitution

    vi.         Spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola and Covid-19;

  vii.         Environmental degradation due to over-exploitation of resources and poor environmental management

 viii.         Inadequate economic and social services such as medical services, markets, and poor housing.

    ix.         Transport problems due to congestion, and traffic jams,

     x.         Occurrence of uncontrolled informal sectors such as food vending, wood carvings, kiosks and drug and human trafficking

    xi.         Increase in the number of beggars and street children

Positive consequences of international migration in the destination

      i.         Population migration promotes the supply of labour for exploiting or harnessing idle resources such as minerals, land, and water bodies.

     ii.         Spread of technology; People who migrate possess different skills in various technologies  

   iii.         It leads to utilization of local resources. For example, minerals and arable land

    iv.         Expansion of markets of local goods



The effect of population change is quite varied. Population change affects both the individuals as well as the nations at large. The effect can be positive or negative.


Effect on the individual

 A high fertility rate results in a large number of children that a family has to look after. 

Migration has its own effects on individuals in the number of ways.

   i.         Some individuals may change their life styles by becoming more sophisticated. This happens after gaining more skills and exposure to more sophisticated lifestyles where the individual migrated to.

 ii.         Some individuals after migrating to urban areas and getting jobs, may take a much longer time to get married.

iii.         When spouses are separated for long periods of time, this may lead to break up of marriages. Either spouse may engage in extra marital relationships during the period of absence of the partner.

iv.         Some individuals who migrate to urban areas lose their cultural values and this lead to immorality. Some turn to crime.


Effects of population change in a nation

Over population is a situation where by a region or country has such a high population that it cannot be supported fully due to a strain on the available resources. In such a situation, many people live in object poverty.


Effects of over population 

                 i.         Over population also leads to unemployment or even under development of a nation or even under employment.

                ii.         Over population lead to poor housing and health facilities because demand for these facilities is far greater than the supply.

              iii.         A large population increases the demand for food. This demand reduces the production of cash crops while increasing production of food crops.

               iv.         Increase of unemployment rate

                v.         Increase of crimes

               vi.         Spread of disease

             vii.         Increase of corruption

            viii.         Increase number of street children


Under population this is the situation where by there are too few people compared to available resources. Here resources available are not fully used (not utilized) because of few people in the area.


Effect of under population

                i.         It leads to underutilization of resources. Agricultural resources are underutilized because of shortage of land and traditional land tenure systems which hinder modernization of agriculture.

               ii.         It may lead to slow industrial growth because of shortage of skilled labor. Although there is a large labor force, it is largely unskilled. 


Population structure is the composition of a population as determined by the proportion of males and females in each age group.

Population structured is usually illustrated by population pyramid.

Population pyramids are graphic representations of the age and sex characteristics of specific population.

For example, population pyramid of developing countries shows wide base which means there are many children than elders while population pyramid of developed countries shows wide top base but narrow base shows low fertility rate.

-          Population pyramid have males on the left hand and female on the right hand side

-          There is vertical line in the middle that separates male and female


Types of population pyramid

         i.            Expansive population pyramid

       ii.            Constrictive population pyramid

     iii.            Stationary population pyramid

         i.            Expansive population pyramid

-It shows high number of percentage in younger age group.

-It characterised by broad base and narrow top

- It characterised by high birth rate

- The upper age decrease of high death rate due to poor social services provisions.

- Mostly found in developing countries such as Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Angola, Mali and Mozambiques.

-This population shows rapid population growth and high death rate.

       ii.             Constrictive population pyramid

-It depicts lower percentages of young aged people

- it shows area with low fertility rate and high level of social and economic development.

- It consists of may elders and narrow the base

- It ussualy found in developed country such as United Kingdom, United states of America, Japan, Norway and Denmark.

     iii.            Stationary population pyramid

-          It reflects the population of developed country whose age group have almost equal percentage from its lower parts of the young to the upper part of older citizens

-          There is neither increase or decrease of population bit also involves immigration.

-          For example of countries are Scandinavia and Austria.




Population structure is important since it provides information on age and sex distribution of a population of a place. It can also highlight the extent of development of the population. The population structure can inform the planning for employment patterns as well as public expenditure. Moreover, it can be used to calculate sex and dependency ratios as described below:


Sex Ratio (SR): This refers to the number of males per 100 females in a given population.

It is obtained by dividing the number of males by the number of females.



For example,

 number of males = 1600

number of females= 2100


SR =


= 76

The result shows that there were less males than females

-          Sex ratio below 100 indicates there is high number of female than males

-          Factors influence sex ratio in developing countries are death rate, birth rate and migration.


Dependency ratio; This refers to the ratio of people in the non-working ages to those in the working ages. Dependency ratio is, therefore, the ratio of dependants (people younger than 15 or older than 64) to the working-age population (15-64). The non-working group is unable to meet their own basic needs (food, shelter and cloth). The working group, thus, has to support the non-working group, which is either the population of young or old people.


DR =


For example,

Children age under 15 = 41,650

Aged people over 65 = 6800

The total population = 85,000



(a) add number of child and aged people


= 48450

(b) minus number of non-workers to total population


= 36550

(c) apply the formula

DR =


= 133

There is high dependant ratio to compare with number of developed country which is below 30


Important things to consider when constructing population pyramids 

        i.Bars are drawn horizontally one above the other 

       ii. The length of the bar corresponds to the size of the aged group 

      iii.The age group may be presented in 5 years group and scales of horizontal bar should be paced 

      iv.The young group forms the base of the pyramid

       v.Males are placed on the left while female are placed on the right

      vi.Horizontal bars are presented by either percentage or absolute numbers 

    vii. Use a graph paper  

   viii.Roughly the length of horizontal baseline should be approximately be equal to the length of vertical central axis 

      ix.Use the data given starting from the lowest to the highest age group 

       x.Shade male and female bars using distinct colours and put head on top of it 

Find population pyramid of Arusha





                                                                 H.S:1cm = 2%

                                                                V.S : 1cm = 10 years



3.4: Population data

Concepts from this subtopic

a.      Explain source of population data

b.     Interpret population data

c.      Explain the uses of population data

Population data refers to economic, social and demographic information of the population.

Source of population data

      i.         Primary source

     ii.         Secondary source


Primary source of data; These are first hand data collection from the field. For example, Census and Sample Survey.


Census refers to the process of collecting, compiling, analyzing and publishing demographic, economic and social data of all people in a country within specified time.

-          For example, Tanzania population census held after 10 years.

-          Tanzania census population was taken 1978, 1988, 2002, 2012 and 2022

Characteristics of population census

      i.         Universality

-          Census covers the whole country or territory and all people residing in the country and those who are outside

     ii.         Periodicity

-          Census must be taken at regular interval. For example, either five years or ten years

-          Census held after five years is called Quinquennial census

-          Census held after 10 years is called Decennial census

-          in Tanzania population census is taken after 10 years that is referred as decennial

   iii.         Specificity

    iv.         Simultaneity

     v.         Individual enumeration of all people


Types of census

      i.         De jure

     ii.         De facto

De jure this type of census allows counting people according to their place of residence.

-          permanent members of household are enumerated in that day.

-          It treats people as static and not dynamic

-          All people with legal emigrants such as ambassadors, co- workers and other going for studying outside are enumerated.

De facto this type of census allows people to be counted wherever they are on the day of enumeration.

-          It counts all people found who stayed to household during the night if enumeration regardless of whether they are permanent or not.

-          It is challenged by those non-citizen people can be counted as citizen of the country

-          Also people who are out of the country cannot be counted in census record of that year.


Stages in conducting census

      i.         First stage

States the purpose of the census

     ii.         Second stage

Involves data collection by making direct contact with residents

   iii.         Third stage

Involves processing, analyzing, production, publication and distribution of data.

Importance of census to a country

      i.         It provides complete account of all people in a country

     ii.         It helps to number of educated and non-educated people

   iii.         It helps to know the nature of man power available

    iv.         It helps to provide decision for planning in distribution of services

     v.         It helps to determine number of taxable adults to estimate revenue of a country

    vi.         It helps to determine living standard of the people

Challenges of population census

      i.         Census is expensive

     ii.         Missing of important information. Especially those absent during enumeration

   iii.         Risk of miss reporting of information. Such as number of employee and educated

    iv.         Remoteness of some place. Some areas have obstacles such as poor roads, wild animals, rivers and mountain

     v.         Providing wrong information.


Secondary source of population data


Refers to the second hand information collected from published documents and statistical data obtained from libraries and demographic resource centres. Example of secondary data is Vital registration

Vitals registration is systems deals with records of Vitals events such as births, deaths, marriages, divorces and migrations.

-          In Tanzania, we have the Registration Insolvency and Trusteeship Agency (RITA) and the Immigration Department. These are institutions with mandates of registering Vitals information

-          Vitals registration systems also deal with the production of birth and death certificates, passports, identification cards (ID), work permits, residence qualifications and citizenship.

Uses of Vital statistics

      i.         It shows how the dynamic population is.

     ii.         It helps the government to plan for provision of services. Such as hospital

   iii.         It provides insight for family issues. Such as divorce and marital status


Interpretation of population data

-          The data collected using all these methods are called raw data.

-          These data cannot be used for any significant purposes as they have not been processed, analysed, interpreted and documented.

-          Therefore, those data can be presented as follows

a.       The population data can be presented in form of tables or graphs showing age groups and the number of males and females.

b.       Data can be presented to show whether the population is in rural or urban areas.

c.       Also anaylse the level of developmet in a city or village.


Uses of population data

         i.            Decision-makers use population data as a basis for formulating policies in various fields. Such as education, health, housing, development, transport and communication and other services.

       ii.            It needed in channeling budgets to the local authority

     iii.            It used in conducting research. Especially for the purpose of acquiring commercial information to serve as a basis for market research, assessment of demand for products, services and supply of personnel.

     iv.            It used to know the number of employment rate in a country

       v.            It used to young generation to choose appropriate market course for studying

     vi.            It used to number of illiterate and literary people

    vii.            It used to measure the rate of poverty in the country





3.5: Population problems or issues

Concepts from this sub topic

a.      Analyse population problems

b.     Analyse the effect of population changes to on economic growth, labour, human needs and investment and suggest possible solution

Population problems or issues

      i.         Unemployment and dependent rate

This is a serious problem in most of the developing countries where the active working population exceeds employment opportunities available. As a result, many youths are unemployed

     ii.         Natural hazards

Such natural hazards include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, and storms, especially, in poor countries with denser population, such as Bangladesh, the natural hazards become so severe.

   iii.         Congestion

High population density can create a problem of congestion in the streets, hospitals, markets, schools and transport because of poor infrastructures and excessive use of private cars that lead to traffic jams during picking hours

    iv.         Shortage of food resources

The more people increase the high demands of food in community which lead to limited availability of food in community

     v.         Shortage of social services

Due to increase number of people there are limited provision of social services like education, health and transportation.

    vi.         Increase of crime

As a result of unemployment, incidences of crime increase. For example, in areas with high population density, robbery, theft, drug abuse and killings are common. For example, Dar es salaam

  vii.         Decline of life expectance

The life-span declines because of problems such as poor health services and poor nutrition. Ignorance of people, poor sanitary conditions and lack of financial resources also contribute to the decline of the life-span

 viii.         Ageing population

In developed countries, birth and death rates are slightly low. This implies that the number of young people compared to old people is relatively small. Another implication is that there is high life expectancy

    ix.         Environmental pollution;

As people struggle to use the little resources available to meet their basic needs, they also generate waste. The waste, which people produce, needs proper management. If not properly disposed of or recycled, waste can lead to pollution and attract organisms such as bacteria, which are harmful to human health.

       x.            Emigration and immigration

People migrate from areas with high population to areas with low population density where there is no pressure on resources. For example, some people move from the Southern foots of Mount Kilimanjaro to other parts of Tanzania such as Morogoro and Tanga. Emigration reduces the labour force in the place of origin whereas immigration increases the demand for social services in the areas of destination

    xi.         Population pressure

Too many people in a place create pressure on resources. For example, high population may cause land competition, over utilization and over exploitation of non-renewable resources. Resource conflicts create an insecure atmosphere for a society to live.

Measures to address population issues or problems

      i.         Use alternative source of energy. For example, Gas and electric cooker

     ii.         To control rapid urbanization. Through managing rural to urban migration through ensuring better services in rural area

   iii.         Creating more income opportunity in rural and urban area

    iv.         Improvement of agriculture activities.

     v.         Provision of education. Especially in family planning and nutrition

    vi.         Importation of skilled labour from other countries. Especially those countries faced by ageing population

  vii.         To develop infrastructure. For example roads, railways and airport.


Effect of population changes to on economic growth, labour, human needs and investment

      i.         Increase of market. Due to increase number of people influences the presence of market due to increase demands of goods

     ii.         Intensify availability of labour to the country

   iii.         Enhance development of technology. Through migration people come with new knowledge that can be applied in a country

    iv.         It promotes government revenues. Especially investors from other countries are paying taxes that adding revenues

     v.         Growth of industries. Through labour supply and enough people for market.

    vi.         Growth of town and cities. For example Dar es salaam.


Sample of questions

1. Discuss how population pressure affects environmental resources in your area. Suggest measures to solve this problem.


3.6: Population policy

Concepts from this sub topic

      i.         Meaning of population policy

     ii.         Compare the national population policy on family planning strategies in Tanzania to the population policies in other countries.



Meaning of population policy

Population policy refers to the statement law or regulations enacted to some demographic goals.

-          A population policy provides guidelines aimed to strengthen the process of integrating population variables in the preparation and implementation of socio-economic development plans.

-          The policy considers the relationship between population and development as well as its impact on environmental conditions.

A population policy divided into two categories

         i.            Explicit population policy

     ii.         Implicit population policy


Explicit population policy y refers to a document or clear statement issued by the government and its commissions, which spells out its rationale, objectives, goals, target policy programmes and implementation plan.

-          The main intention of issuing the policy is to control population growth and raise the people's standard of living in the country.

-          Explicitly, laws are well-stipulated and strictly reinforced. This type of policy is practised in China, Sweden and England.

Implicit population policy

These are laws, regulations or statements which may have indirect effect on population growth.

-          Whether the policy is explicit or implicit, it has the ultimate aim of influencing a country’s population size, composition, distribution and growth.


Tanzania's Population Policy In Tanzania

-          The National Population Policy was adopted in 1992 and was followed by programme implementation in 1995.

-          The National Population Policy was reviewed in 2006. The main objective of the policy was to reinforce national development by developing the resources available to improve the quality of life of its people.

-          Special emphasis is placed on regulating the population growth rate, enhancing population quality and improving the health and welfare of women and children.

-          The primary concerns of the National Population Policy are how to safeguard the interest of the people and the satisfaction of the basic needs and bring socio-economic progress.


Goals of Tanzania's national population policy


         i.            Sustainable development and eradication of poverty

       ii.            Improved availability and accessibility of high-quality social services

     iii.            Attainment of gender equity, equality, women empowerment, social justice and development for all individuals; and

     iv.            Harmonious interrelationships among the population, resource utilisation and the environment.


National Population Policy and family planning

With specific reference to family planning, the goals of the policy are

i.       To strengthen Family planning services

ii.       Promote health and welfare of the family, the community and the nation,

iii.    Reduce the high population growth rate. 

population regulation includes making family planning services available to all, encouraging child spacing of at least two years, and supporting family life education programmes for youths and family planning for men and women. In Tanzania, both governmental and non-governmental organisations under the co-ordination of the Family Planning Unit (FPU) in the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MoHCDGEC) provide family planning services


Strategies to population policy in Tanzania

To achieve the policy objective, the government intends to integrate population variables in development planning. Population variables include age, sex, education, migration, fertility level, life expectancy and mortality.

Some of the government strategies include

      i.         creating mass awareness on the relationship between population, resources, environment, poverty eradication and sustainable development.

     ii.         The government promotes non-agricultural production in rural areas, for example, lumbering and fishing

   iii.         Encourages the private sectors and the local community to be actively involved in initiating.

    iv.         The government implements and finances population programmes in addition to building the capacity of planners at district, regional and national levels in mainstreaming population issues in development plans with a gender perspective

     v.         Creating an environment that will attract investors

    vi.         promote self-employment opportunities in the informal sector,

  vii.         Provide labour market information to employers and job seekers, foster labour for intensive industrial development and promote viable family formation while ensuring gender equality.

In groups, read the Tanzania's National Population Policy and then discuss its achievements, constraints and limitations.


Population policy in China

-          China is the most populous country in the world.

-          Out of five people living on planet Earth, one is a Chinese.

-          This large population suffered from diseases, drought, low income, poverty, poor living conditions and high levels of emigration.

-          To solve these problems, the government of China had to come up with a policy which was meant to deal with population growth.

-          Thus, in 1979, the anti-natalist one child per family policy was introduced by government aiming at reducing natural increase of population to zero by the year 2020 and hence avoid the population growth beyond 1200 million people.

Incentives to china population policy

      i.         The government aimed at providing the citizens with free education, better housing, pension and family benefits. To enforce the policy, the families which had a second child could not have these benefits.

     ii.         They also faced fines of up to 15% of the family income and women who had second pregnancy were forced to abort.

   iii.         marriage was set to 22 years for males and 20 years for females. People intending to marry were required to apply for permission from the state and as well as when they intended to have a child.



Population policy in German 

 Population policy in German it is an example of the place where birth control was practiced resulting in very low population growth The current existing observation shows that Germans are not eager to have large families due to life expenses, which gives the following results 

                 Lead to very low population 

                 The population consist more of old people and very low number of youth 

                 Sharp decrease of labour force due to ageing population 



i.Consideration of regional and district variation with regard to the level of socio-economic development

ii.Adherence to the development vision which among other things emphasize the role of the market in determining resources allocation and uses

iii.Continued democratization of the political system with its intended political pluralism as symbolized in the emergence of various political parties or actors and mushroom of independent mass media

iv.Thrift exploitation of the country‘s non-renewable resources taking consideration the needs of future generations.

v.Recognition and appreciation of the central role of the government, NGOs, private sector communities and individuals in population and development.


Justification of population policy

This policy takes cognizance of the achievement, constraint and limitation of implementing post population policies as well as new development and continuing challenges.



The achievement of both implicit and explicit population policies includes the followings:

i          Considerable awareness of population issues particularly those related to reproductive health and child survival by the masses of the people for example fertility, infant and child mortality has decline overtime

ii         Adoption of an explicit population policy in 1992, which recognized the links and interrelationship between population, resources, the environment and development.

iii        Expansion and /or introduction of population studies in institutions of higher learning in the country

iv        Increased number and capacity of NGOs engaged in population related activities including advocacy and social mobilization, service delivery and capacity building.

v         High knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among both men and women and male involvement in family planning which has increased contraceptive prevalence from about 10 in 1980s to 16 in 1996. Comparison of the National Population policy on Family Planning Strategies in Tanzania to the population policies of other countries

vi        Tanzania is not the only country which has adopted a population policy. In the 1950's, China was overpopulated and in 1952 it became the first country to introduce a population policy. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and launched its first population policy in 1988.

Sample of questions

1.      Compare the family planning strategies in the Tanzania National Population Policy with the strategies in the policies of other countries such as Nigeria and China. Present your findings in class.

2.      "The population distribution in Tanzania is uneven." Elaborate this statement by using five points.

3.      "Migration in a country can be either an asset or liability." Verify this statement by using five points.

4.      "Some societies believe that having a large number of children in a family is a source of labour force." Argue against this statement by using six points.

5.      By using six points, describe how rapid population growth affects the environment of a place.

6.      By using six points, explain why rural-urban migration is strictly discouraged by the Government of Tanzania.

7.      "Ageing population in developed countries is considered as a curse phenomenon." Explain five reasons behind this statement.

8.      Highlight any five population issues affecting the development of any developing country of your choice.

9.      "Migration is caused by both pull-and-push factors." Justify the statement by using six points. 9. Describe five effects of population change on an individual and the nation.

10.   With five reasons, explain why Dar es Salaam is highly populated in Tanzania?





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