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1.1 Meaning of geography


·       Definition of geography

·       Branches of geography

·       Relationship between different geographical phenomena

Definition of geography

Geography comes from two Greek words, Geo means Earth and graphien means “To draw”, “To describe” or “To write”.

Generally, word geography means description of the earth or the science of describing the earth


Geography is the study of interrelationship between human being and environment.

Branches of geography

a.      Physical geography

b.      Human and economic geography

c.       Practical geography

Physical geography: This is branch of geography that deals with physical features of the earth. For example, mountain, valley and water bodies.

Human and economic geography: This is branch of geography that deals with study of relationship between human being and environment. And also focus on man-made features.

Practical geography: This is type of geography that deal with studying of map work, statistics, survey, research and photograph.

The interrelationship between geographical phenomena

Geographical phenomena refer to features, events or situations observed in environment whose cause or explanation is of geographical interest. For example, drought, soil erosion and air pollution.

The following are interrelationship between geographical phenomena

a.  The climate of an area influences the type of soil, livestock keeping and population distribution.
b. Human activities like deforestation influences expose of soil to agent of erosion
c. Land provides the soil for plant growth
d. Climate influences types of crops to be grown.
e.  emperature influences people how they dress. For example, in cold area people wear heavy clothes unlike Dar es salaam people wear light clothes
f. The environment provides habit for living things. For example, ocean the living are fishes

1.2: The importance of studying geography


·       To explain the importance of geography

The following are importance of studying geography

                  (i)            It helps to get skills for environment conservation.

                (ii)            It helps to promote the proper use of available natural resources.

              (iii)            It increases awareness of our country. For example, knowing boundaries and resources

              (iv)            It helps to get professional like engineer

          (v)       It helps to develop practical skills. For example, observation, recording and interpreting various geographical phenomena

              (vi)            It helps to understand how to solve geographical problem. For example, air pollution and deforestation.

            (vii)            It helps to understand the nature of the universe. For example, where the earth come from.

      (viii)     It helps to understand geographical features. For example, mountain, valley, plateau, vegetation and water bodies.


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