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The concept of water management

Water is combination of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Water can exist in liquid, solid or gas state.

Water resources management refers to the process of planning, developing, distributing and managing the effective use of water resources.

Sources of water

These includes rainfall, wells, springs, ponds, rivers, lakes, seas and ocean.

Economic importance of water

      (i)            It used in manufacturing industry

    (ii)            It used for drinking and cooking.

  (iii)            It used for irrigation of crops

  (iv)            It used for electric generation

    (v)            It used in navigation sector. For example, boats and ships.

  (vi)            Water is component of most beverages such as soft drinks, milk and coffee.

(vii)            It sources of employment of opportunity to other people.

Family size, water supply and quality of life

Family size refers to the number of family members.

-The larger the family the higher water demand for domestic use.

-with adequate and reliable supply of water the quality life of family members is improved as family member not need much time to spend searching for water.

-water is most potential for human life to survive. Good and safe water supply encourage better health to the people

Effect of distance to water sources on the girl- child in Tanzania.

      (i)            It leads to disability disorders linked to spinal disorders and cervical compression syndrome.

    (ii)            It leads to psycho social and emotional suffering.

  (iii)            It leads to sexual violation.

  (iv)            Limit woman in participation of economic productive activities.

    (v)            It leads to lack of education

Relationship between water supply and vegetation

a.      The amount of water supply determines the type of vegetation that grow in a certain area.

b.      Area with dense vegetation experience high Eva-transpiration.

c.       Vegetation reduces amount of water loss in those area.

d.      Thick forest influences the formation of high rainfall.

e.      Plants develop different adaptive mechanism. Area with no rainfall plants shades their leaves or has thorny leaves

River basin development

River basin is an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. It has features such as tributaries, watershed and convergence

Requirement for establishing river basin project.

a.      Construction of dams for retaining water.

b.      Removal of silt or mud from river.

c.       Straightened and widen to accommodate a lot of water

d.      Planting of trees.

Benefit of river basin development

      (i)            Attract irrigation activities

    (ii)            It controls floods

  (iii)            It helps to establish hydroelectric power.

  (iv)            It generates employment opportunity

    (v)            It attracts tourist

  (vi)            Development of fishing activities

Challenges facing river basin project

a.      Siltation

b.      Water pollution

c.       Cost

d.      Trans boundary conflict

Rufiji basin in Tanzania

It managed under Rufiji basin water board (RBWB) under the ministry of water.

It is one of the largest river basin in Africa cover an area about 177,420km2.

It occupies part of Iringa, Njombe, Mbeya, Ruvuma, Morogoro, Dodoma and Pwani regions.

Benefits of Rufiji river water board

(i)         it has promoted the market of hydroelectric power. For example, Kidatu

(ii)         There are floods control

(iii)         It has led to development of town and villages. For example, makambako and kidato

(iv)         It provides experts

(v)         Development of agriculture activities

(vi)         Increase of planting teak and rubbers

Challenges facing the Rufiji basin water board

      (i)            Diseases like cholera and Malaria.

    (ii)            Transportation problems

  (iii)            Drought

  (iv)            Poor labour supply

    (v)            Inadequate of capital

The Tennessee valley authority (TVA)

It supplies electricity to millions of people in United states of America.

Tennessee river is a tributary of the Ohio River and the Ohio is a tributary of the Mississippi River.

The Tennessee river valley covers 105,930km2

TVA was established in 1933 by the US Government.

Function of Tennessee valley authority (TVA)

      (i)            Floods control

    (ii)            Power generation

  (iii)            Ensuring water quality supply

  (iv)            Transmission of economic development

    (v)            Land conservation

Benefits of the Tennessee Valley Authority

      (i)            Power generation

    (ii)            Environment conservation

  (iii)            Economic development

  (iv)            It creates employment opportunity

    (v)            Land conservation

  (vi)            Ensuring water quality supply

Land reclamation

Refers to the process of turning waste or poor land into useful state.

Method used in land reclamation

      (i)            Draining techniques. It used it land affected by water stagnant.

    (ii)            Planting of trees. This method used in area where soil is eroded.

  (iii)            Additional of organic manure and fertilizers. This is used in soil that has no fertile

  (iv)            Land levelling. It is used in steep slope.

    (v)            Reducing of animals.

Land reclamation in Tanzania

Efforts done by Tanzania government to reclaim waste land in Tanzania

      (i)            Irrigation

    (ii)            Drainage

  (iii)            Afforestation

  (iv)            Clearance of vegetation

Sustainable use of water resources

Sustainable use of water refers to activities relating to current and future use of water resources in term of conservation, management and protection.

There are underground and surface water.

Underground water

Underground water is water beneath the earth’s surface. It founds in rocks space or aquifer.

Types of underground water

a.            Connate water. It also referred to fossil water.

It formed during rock formation.

b.            Meteoric water. It originates from rainfall.

c.             Juvenile water. It also called magmatic water that formed due to volcanic eruption

d.            Oceanic water. This water formed from seepage of ocean water to the ground.

Resources obtained from water

Salt, fish, decorative items such as cowry shells, hydroelectric power.

Underground water can be tapped in the following ways

         (i)            Drilling boreholes. Then water pumped and tapped through the tap

       (ii)            Digging wells.

     (iii)            Soil may be scooped to expose the water that is close with the earth surface.

Extraction of water resources

a.      Fishes. It obtained through using hooks or net

b.      Sand. It is obtained through dredging river beds or bank

c.       Salt. It is trapped in a pond after evaporation salt crystal remain in the pond

d.      Hydro power. It is tapped by directing turbine in water sources.

e.      Decorative items. It harvests from the sea floor or picking from beach.

Problem caused by extraction of water resources

                  (i)            Pollution of marine water

                (ii)            Disappearance of some fish’s species due to illegal fishing

              (iii)            Land degradation

              (iv)            Reduce amount of fishes due to high fishing activities

                (v)            Damage of environment near water bodies

              (vi)            Decline of irrigation activities

Water pollution

This occurs when harmful substances of different quality, quantity and form are mixed in underground water.

Main sources of water pollution

a.      Industrial waste. For example, harmful gases

b.      Domestic waste. For example, food remain, dead animals and plastics

c.       Agriculture chemicals.

d.      Extensive construction

e.      Oil spills. It occurs in the ocean during transportation of the oil.

Ways of conserving water

                  (i)            Provision of education

                (ii)            Sewage treatment

              (iii)            Controlled using agricultural chemical

              (iv)            Recycling

                (v)            Avoiding wastage of water. Such as using irrigation drip method

              (vi)            Water re-use. For example, water from kitchen can be used for watering


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