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2.0: Promotion of life skills

2.0: Promotion of life skills

 TOPIC 2. PROMOTION OF LIFE SKILLS



2.1 Meaning and types of life skills

Ø  Explain the meaning and types of life skills

Ø  Illustrate the importance of life skills

Ø  Demonstrate how to use life skills

Ø  Analyse the consequence of not applying life skills

A skills

Is the ability that a person has to do something well

Life skills

Is the ability of a person to live well in the society

TYPES OF LIFE SKILLS

Life skills divided into three types namely

        i)            Individual life skills/ intra-person life skills

       ii)            Social life skills/ inter-personal life skills

     iii)            Effective decision making skills

  1. INDIVIDUAL LIFE SKILLS/ INTRA-PERSON LIFE SKILLS

These are skills that enable individuals to understand themselves in various ways.

People are able to understand their strengths and weakness, how they think and feel and how they express their thoughts and feelings. Individual life skills includes;

  1. Self- esteem
  2. Self-worth
  3. Self-awareness
  4. Self-assertiveness
  5. Self-confidence
  6. Self-dependence
  7. Coping with emotions
  8. Coping with stress
  9. Solving problem

I. SELF-ESTEEM

Refers to self evaluation of our abilities, capabilities and worthiness as a result of comparing ourselves with others. self-esteem can be;

a)       High self-esteem

b)      Low self-esteem

a) High self-esteem

This comes when one focuses on positive qualities and therefore become confident. Eg, one being happy, lovely, cooperative, helpful and caring

 

b) Low self-esteem

This is the result of lacking confidence because of comparing ourselves negatively with others. This may lead to;

Ø  One feeling bad

Ø  Lacking self-control

Ø  Focus on negative and ignore his or her achievements

Ø  He or she would be feeling sad, depressed, angry ashamed

II. SELF DEPENDENCE

Is an individual’s ability to make decisions by him or herself. In order for a person to be self-dependent, he or she must;

a)       Accept his or her abilities

Each person has to be aware of his or her abilities and potential to perform an activity. For example, believing that you can complete your homework without being too dependent on others

b) Have self identity

Self identity is recognizing who one is. In order to achieve this, a person must understand the strengths, weakness, goal and resources he or he needs to get where he or she wants to be

c) Clarify his or her value

Value clarification relates to the convictions and beliefs which guide a person in decision-making process. It raises one’s self-discipline, ability to stay focused as well as commitment to responsibilities

d) Develop independent decision- making

Involves identifying options, evaluating available options and choosing the best option. This is important for someone to listen what others tell you, and analyze their ideas before making a decision.

 

III. COPING WITH EMOTIONS

Emotions

Are inborn psychological conditions that show our reaction to situations or events.

Ø  Basic emotions include; happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust.

Ø  These emotions are the strategies for coping with the problem or challenges we face. Feelings can be either positive or negative.

Ø  Inability to handle our emotions and feelings can lead to;

v  Stress

v  Depression

v  Anxiety

v  conflict

WAYS TO COPE WITH EMOTIONS

a)       Identifying emotions

You need to identify the emotions involved in the situations. For example, ask yourself, are you happy, sad, angry or fearful?

b) Identifying the sources of emotions

A person who is not aware of the source of his or her emotions become confused and may not develop coping mechanism

c) Analysing the effects of the emotions on one oneself and others

This will help someone to make the right decisions

d) Assessing your ability to handle emotions

Good decision-making begins with the ability to handle emotions

e) Seeking guidance or counselling

You are encouraged to find counselling services when it is difficult for you to cope with emotions. Some emotions may be difficult to manage, so you have to seek help from the school counsellor or any leader you trust. 

IV. SELF-ASSERTIVENESS

Is the ability of a person to know what he or she wants and why, and be able to take necessary to achieve it.

It includes valuing what others feel and want. Being assertive means being able to stand up for your own and other  people’s rights.

TECHNIQUES COULD BE USED TO DEVELOP ASSERTIVENESS

a)       Making positive decisions

Negativity and pressure may lead to making irrational decision while you can make rational decisions when you are calm, regardless of the external pressure which has triggered your anger

b) Being open

Sharing your opinions, feelings, wants and needs with others reduces unnecessary stress. In the process of sharing its important to consider the needs of others

c) Being a good listener

This  means giving the freedom to express their inner feelings and concerns without interfering with their decisions. A good listen can lead to develop a sense of trust, love and care

d) Being hones

Tell others the truth by sharing with them your real feelings. Deception may look smart, but may have very painful effects later

e) Respecting others

People need to be treated with decency and politeness. Speaking in calm and relaxed tone increases your chances of being treated with respect

V. COPING WITH STRESS

Stress: Is mental, emotional or physical tension or pressure. this can be resulted from;

        i)            Family conflict

       ii)            Divorce of parents

     iii)            Low family income

     iv)            Lack of friends

       v)            Lack of interest  in a particular subject

SYMPTOMS OF STRESS

        i)            Loneliness

       ii)            Sadness

     iii)            Fear

     iv)            Ander

       v)            Worries

     vi)            Sleeping disorders

STRATEGIES USED TO REDUCE / COPE WITH OR MANAGE STRESS

        i)            Managing time

Having a timetable will help you to get rid of unnecessary stress

ii) Exercising and leisure

Physical exercise gives you an opportunity to get rid of your negative feeling

iii) Having a positive attitude

Being positive and avoiding focusing on negative aspects of life protects your mental health

iv) Finding a social support system

Spend with friends, others family members and people who love, care about and support you.

2. SOCIAL LIFE SKILLS / INTER-PERSONAL LIFE SKILLS

This is the ability to understand and live in peace and harmony with others.

Ø  Social skills give an individual the knowledge and ability to live according to the standards of a society.

ASPECTS OF SOCIAL LIFE SKILLS

        i)            Forming healthy relationship

       ii)            Forming friendships

     iii)            Resistance to peer pressure

     iv)            Empathy

       v)            Negotiation

     vi)            effective communication

  1. FORMING HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP

This is the ability to meet and relate with others in various places such as at school, playing field and social gatherings.

Ø  To maintain healthy living, humans need healthy relationships that help them to have and behave positively towards each other.

QUALITIES OF GOOD FRIEND

a)       Trust

b)      Empathy

c)       Honesty

d)      Openness

e)      Loyalty

f)        Unconditional acceptance

II. RESISTANCE TO PEER PRESSURE

Peer pressure may make you change your opinion, attitude or behavior as a result of your intention to belong to the group of people of your age.

Our friends can influence us to do good or bad things. Positive peer pressure influence an individual to do right things while negative peer pressure influence to do wrong things.

STRATEGIES OF MANAGING PEER PRESSURE

a)       Paying attention to values

If peers or friend are pressuring you to do something against your values, do not feel ashamed to stand by your standards

b) Being thoughtful

Responding to friends requests, view and opinions require a thoughtful mind

c) Having a conversation with the person

It is good idea to be open to someone who is trying to influence you to do something

d) Communicating with parents

Sharing with parents what your friends or peers ask you to do is important. Parents have the duty to care for and protect their children

e) Getting support from others

Includes trusted adults such as leaders or school counselor

III. EMPATHY

Is the ability to feel what others are feeling and understanding what they are going through.

Empathy help us to understand and help others to address their problem

IV. NEGOTIATION SKILLS

Is a communication technique that enables two side to reach an agreement their problems

                                            OR

Is the ability to agree on issues without undermining or going against one’s principles

V. EFFECTIE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

This is the ability of a person to communicate with people according to their mood, age and background. Effective communication skills includes

  1. Speaking skills
  2. Listening skills
  3. Reading skills
  4. Writing skills

 

3. EFFECTIVE DECISION-MAKING SKILLS

These are skills which enable a person to make good decision.

ASSPECTS OF EFFECTIVE DECISION-MAKING SKILLS

        i)            Critical thinking skills

       ii)            Creative thing skills

     iii)            Problem-solving skills

     iv)            Decision-making skills

i. CRTICAL THINKING SKILLS

Is the ability of a person to develop a deep understanding of something. Before making a decision, a critical thinker considers the advantages and disadvantages of various ways of doing something.

ii. CREATIVE THINKING SKILLS

Is the ability to think and come up with new ideas and new ways of doing things

iii. DECISION-MAKING SKILLS

Is the ability to make the best choice out of many available options

iv. PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILLS

This involves making a choice and acting on it.

Ø  This help individuals to make decisions and implement them in whatever situation they find themselves.

INSTITUTIONS/ SOURCES/ PROMOTER OF LIFE SKILLS

        i)            Family

       ii)            Neighbours

     iii)            Friends

     iv)            Schools

       v)            Society

     vi)            Religion

   vii)            Government

  viii)            NGOs and UN agencies such as UNICEF, HAKIELIMU, TWAWEZA, UNESCO, TAMWA

IMPORTANCE OF LIFE SKILLS

  1. Develop good behavior
  2. Increase love and understanding for others people
  3. Maintain peace and order
  4. Promoting conflict resolution
  5. Promoting healthy personal attitudes
  6. Developing ability to deal with various life issues

 

HOW TO USE LIFE SKILLS

We can use life skills in the following ways;

  1. Forming relationships with other people
  2. Making good friends
  3. Showing empathy
  4. Resistance to peer groups
  5. Displaying effective communication
  6. Problem-solving

CONSEQUENCES OF NOT APPLYING LIFE SKILLS

  1. Existence of health problems
  2. Existence of conflicts in the society
  3. Existence of poor academic performance
  4. Existence of poor leadership
  5. Existence of bad behavior
  6. Existence of irrational decision-making
  7. Stagnation of personal and national development

 

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