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1.0: OUR NATION

1.0: OUR NATION

INTRODUCTION OF CIVICS

What is Civics?

Civics

Is the study of human rights and responsibilities of citizens

                      OR

Is the study of human rights and responsibilities of citizens, the governance and environment in which our society is found.

MAIN THEMES ADDRESSED IN CIVICS

Ø  In civics we study about:

  1. Governance and government
  2. Human rights and responsibilities of citizens
  3. The environment in which we live in
  4. International relations
  5. Moral and family values
  6. Cultural issues
  7. Economic issues

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CIVICS AND OTHER SUBJECTS

  1. Civics is related to history through learning about various national festivals. Through these  festivals, people learn important lessons which elaborate on the past, present and predict the future.
  2. Civics relates to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) through learning issues of globalization that help people to develop awareness on contribution, challenges and adverse impact of ICT in the world.
  3. Civics is related to language.

People can exercise freedom of expression and association through language. In some countries can be a national symbol. For example, in Tanzania, Kiswahili language is one of the national symbol and it is taught in schools as subject.

iv. Civics is related to Geography

Geography addresses issues of environmental conservation and sustainability of natural resources. so, civics promotes citizens’ commitment in protecting geographical boundaries and public resources.

v. Civics relate with science subjects

IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING CIVICS

  1. It helps to understand human rights
  2. It helps to understand responsibilities of citizens
  3. It help us to understand our environment
  4. It help us to understand our culture
  5. It help us to understand road safety
  6. It help us to establish good relationship and respect
  7. It helps to promote peace and security 1.1 The Components of our Nation
  8. Analyse the components that make up our nation

A nation

Is a large group of people who live in a particular territory sharing common history, culture, language under the government.

OR

Is a large group or community of people living in a defined geographical area sharing common history, culture and language under the control of government.

Examples of nations includes, Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda

Each country has its recognized boundaries. In Africa there are 54 nations.

 

1.1 The Components of our Nation

Ø  Analyse the components that make up our nation

1.2 The National Symbols

Ø  Identify Tanzania’s national symbols

Ø  Explain the significance of each national symbol

Ø  Identify Tanzania’s national festivals and their significance

PILLARS OF STATE

There are mainly three pillars of the state namely;

  1. Executive
  2. Judiciary
  3. Legislature

MAP OF TANZANIA AND NEIGHBOURING NATIONS


COMPONENTS OF OUR NATION

There are various components that make up our nation, these are;

  1. Territory
  2. Sovereignty
  3. Language
  4. Government
  5. People
  6. Culture
  1. TERRITORY

Is an area of land that has boundaries and is under control of a government.

Ø  The total area covered by our country is 945,000 km2 . Tanzania is bordered by the following countries;

  1. Kenya and Uganda to the North
  2. Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the South
  3. Rwanda, Burundi and DRC to the west
  4. The Indian ocean borders Tanzania to the east

2. SOEREIGNTY

Is the authority of state to govern itself

              OR

Is the freedom that a country has to govern itself. This means that there is no external power that control the country.

TYPES OF SOVEREIGNTY

i. Internal sovereignty

Ø  This is where a country has the power to supervise all its internal affairs. Tanganyika become a sovereignty state on 9th December 1961 while Zanzibar on 10th December 1963

ii. External sovereignty

This is where a country has the freedom to form its governing policy and foreign policy. Tanzania is sovereign state which has both internal and external sovereignty.

3. GOVERNMENT

Refers to the selected or elected group of people who are responsible for controlling a country or state.

            OR

Is the body of people which administers the state and maintains law and order.

Ø  The government has power and authority to control and direct people’s activities within its territory. In Tanzania we use the republic system of government where the country is led by a president and politicians who have been elected by the people.

4. PEOPLE

Refers to the persons who belong to a particular country. Currently, the population of Tanzania is estimated to be 61 millions. Tanzanian people have their own national language, common culture, central government and history.

5. CULTURE

Refers to the customs and beliefs of a particular group of people.

                    OR

Refers to the sum total way of people’s life in a given area at a given time. Eg, beliefs, arts, marriage.

6. LANGUAGE

Is the system of communication mostly in speech and writing that is used by the people of particular society.

1.2 The National Symbols

Ø  Identify Tanzania’s national symbols

Ø  Explain the significance of each national symbol

Ø  Identify Tanzania’s national festivals and their significance

NATIONAL SYMBOLS

A symbol: Is a sign that represent something

National symbols

Are signs which represents a nation.

These symbols are very important as they serve as remineter of our national hood to us and to the rest of the world.

Ø  Our national symbols includes;

  1. The national anthem
  2. The uhuru torch
  3. The National currency
  4. The coat of arms
  5. The National flag
  6. The constitutional
  7. The presidential standard
  1. THE NATIONAL ANTHEM

Is the official song of the nation.

Ø  The national anthem is played or sung on special occasions such as:

  1. When the president inspects the guard
  2. When opening the international events. Eg, football and boxing match
  3. When the president or vice president visit another country
  4. When the national flag is being hoisted
  5. On the announcement of death of resident or vice president
  6. Before and after president address the nation

IMPORTANCE OF NATIONAL ANTHEM

  1. It is symbol of our nationality and freedom
  2. Is a unifying tool for Tanzanians
  3. It makes citizens feel proud of their country
  4. It is identity for internal recognition
  5. It express a sense of belonging to Tanzania and Africa

2. NATIONAL CONSTITUTION

A constitution

Is the system of laws and basic principles by which the national is govern.

Ø  A constitution provides guidelines which the society must follow. Our country is ruled according to the constitution that was enacted in 1977.


IMPORTANCE OR SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONSTITUTION

  1. It protects the rights of individuals
  2. It provide separation of power
  3. It is the basic or mother law
  4. It shows how leaders are to be chosen
  5. It defines the limits of the powers of leaders
  6. It show the rights and responsibilities of citizens
  7. It show the relationship between the government and the citizens
  8. It ensures that the government is fair to its citizens

3. NATIONAL FLAG

Is a piece of cloth with a special coloured designed. Our flag has four colours, these are

  1. Green: Represents the vegetation of our country
  2. Black: Represents the people of Tanzania/Africans
  3. Blue: Represents the water bodies in the country
  4. Golden-yellow/Yellow: Represents the mineral wealth of the country


IMPORTANCE OR SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NATIONAL FLAG

  1. It is a symbol of our independence or sovereignty
  2. It symbolizes the unit of Tanzanians
  3. It is symbol for freedom of the people
  4. Is a symbol of the nationality
  5. It is a symbol of Tanzania culture

4. NATIONAL LANGUAGE

This is the language spoken by all people in the nation. The national language of Tanzania is Kiswahili

SIGNIFICANCE OR IMPORTANCE OF THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE

  1. It act as the media of communication within the country
  2. It symbolizes the culture of the nation
  3. It unifies people with a common history
  4. It also identifies the country internationally
  5. 5. NATIONAL CURRENCY
  6. Currency: Is the system of money that a country uses.
  7. National currency
  8. The Tanzania national currency is shillings. The value of shilling always appears as coin or notes. Money is used for measuring value trading and paying for goods and services in a country.



SIGNIFICANCE OR IMPORTANCE OF THE NATIONAL CURRENCY

  1. It is used in buying and selling
  2. It is a means of settling debts
  3. It is used to measure value
  4. It is identity of nationality and freedom

6. UHURU TORCH/ INDEPENDENCE TORCH

This was introduced for the first time by president of Tanzania M.J. Kambarage Nyerere to symbolize freedom, unity, love, dignity, solidarity and hope. On 9th/12/196 the uhuru torch was first hoisted by Alexander Nyirenda on top of mount Kilimanjaro at midnight when Tanganyika got her independence from Britain.

Ø  Lighting the torch on the mountain symbolizes the following;

a)       Illumination of the whole country with freedom

b)      Bringing love where there was hatred

c)       Dignity where there was contempt

d)      Hope where there was despair.



SIGNIFICANCE OR IMPORTANCE OF THE UHURU TORCH

  1. It symbolizes freedom and light
  2. It promotes unity in the country
  3. It promotes cooperation among Tanzanians
  4. It promotes development in aspects of life
  5. It promote peace, dignity, respect and hope among Tanzanians

7. COAT OF ARMS

Is a government logo or emblem which comprises different colours and landmarks of Tanzania.

                      OR

It is an official seal or stamp of the government.

COMPONENTS OF COAT OF ARMS

Our coat of arms has twelve (12) components which represents various national interests, such as state power, economic basis, national culture and history. These components are;

  1. Two human figures

Ø  The man and woman represent the people of Tanzania

Ø  Symbolizes the needs for cooperation between men and women in order to bring about development

ii. National flag - Symbolizes national freedom / sovereignty

iii. Uhuru torch- Symbolizes freedom and enlightenment

iv. Crossed axes and hoes – Represent the tools used by Tanzanian to develop their country

v. Two elephant tusks

Represents our national heritage in terms of wildlife (available national parks and game reserves

  1. Shield and spear

Ø  Represents the weapons that were used by Tanzanians to resist colonialism

Ø  Represents the readiness of the people to defend their independence

Ø  Represent national defense

  1. Peak of mount Kilimanjaro - Is a source of pride of Tanzanians
  2. Sea waves – represents water bodies found in Tanzania such as rivers, lakes, swamps and ocean
  3. Crops (cotton and cloves) – Represent the cash crops of Zanzibar and Tanzania mainland

Ø  At the feet of the man, there is a branch of clove tree while at the feet of woman there is a branch of cotton plant.

  1. Red band on the shield –Represent fertile soil in Tanzania
  2. Golden band on the upper part of the shield – Represents the minerals wealth of the country such as diamond, gold and Tanzanite
  3. The inscription of UHURU NA UMOJA – This means freedom and unity

Ø  It is the national motto of the United Republic of Tanzania


SIGNIFICANCE OR IMPORTANCE OF THE COAT OF ARMS

  1. It symbolizes state power
  2. It symbolizes our national culture and history
  3. It symbolizes state political and economical bases
  4. It symbolizes state sovereignty, freedom and unity of the people
  5. It is used as a symbol of authority
  6. vii. PRESIDENTIAL STANDARD
  7. Is a flag which is used during official ceremonies where the president is in attendance. It has a green background with a blue border and the coat of arms in the middle. This has no crops, human figure or the peak of mount Kilimanjaro


SIGNIFICANCE OR IMPORTANCE OF THE PRESIDENTIAL STANDARD

  1. Symbolizes the authority of the president
  2. It is a state symbol of the president

NATIONAL FESTIVALS AND PUBLIC HOLDAYS

National festivals

Are days when we celebrate important national events.

Ø  These days are usually public holidays where most offices and business are normally closed on such days. During these days people remember important historic events which have taken place.

TYPES OF NATIONAL DAYS

Civic / public holidays

Religious holidays

1. CIVIC / PUBLIC NATIONAL FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS

These are special days that commemorate events which have profound meaning. These are

i. Independence day

This is marked on 9th December every year. Tanganyika got her independence on 9th December 1961 and a year later she become a republic on 9th December on 9th December 1962

ii. Revolution day

Tanzanians celebrate revolution day on 12th January every year. On 12th January, 1964 the people of Zanzibar overthrow the Sultan’s government. People sing and dance to remember those who took part in the revolution

iii. Union day: Fall on 26th April each year

On 26th April, 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar united to form the United Republic of Tanzania. Sheikh Abeid Aman Karume and Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere signed an agreement to unite the two countries.

iv. Saba saba day – fall on 7th July each year

In this day the government has established an annual trade exhibition which is held at Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyere Grounds along Kilwa Road in Dar es Salaam

v. farmer’s day/ Nane nane day

This day is celebrated on 8th August every year. On this day, farmers and traders exhibit their agricultural products, farm implements and machinery each year, one region in the country is chosen to host the national exhibition

vi. Nyere day

Every 14th October each year, Tanzanians mark the death anniversary of the first president of Tanzania, Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere.

vii. Karume day: Fall on 7th April each years

viii. Labor / workers day: Fall on 1st May each year

New year day: Fall on every 1st January each year. 

2. RELIGIOUS NATIONAL FESTIVALS

These days are marked by special religious events or festivals according to the beliefs and faith of particular group of people. In Tanzania there are two dominant religious, namely Christianity and Islamic. These religious are;

  1. Christmas day: Fall on 25th December each year

On this day Christians remember the birth of Jesus Christ.

Ø  Christians stay at home with their families eat, drink and give gifts to each other

Ø  They also give basic needs such as clothes and food to the needy, orphans and widow

v  Boxing day

Is the first day after Christmas. It celebrated on 26th December to mark the end of Christmas celebrations

Christians use the boxing day to reflect on the coming of Jesus and to open gifts received from family members or friends

 

ii. Eid El Fitr

This is celebrated by Muslims to mark the end of the Holy month of Ramadhan.

On this day, Muslims normally give gifts to the poor, visit and eat with them to celebrate the holly month

iii. Good Friday, Easter and Easter Monday

On these days Christians in Tanzania Unite with other Christians in the world to celebrate and remember the suffering, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Ø  During these days, Christians give gifts to the poor, visit and eat with them

iv. Moulid day

This is the day used to commemorate the birth of the prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). The date and month depend on the Islamic calendar.

v. Eid el Hajj

This is celebrated to mark the end of pilgrimage or “Hajj” which is fifth pillar of Islam. The date depends on the sighting of the moon. Muslims make sacrifices by slaughtering goals or sheep and give gifts to the poor, orphans and widows.

SIGNIFICANCE OR IMPORTANCE OF THE NATIONAL FESTIVALS

  1. Keeps a history of our country alive
  2. These promotes unity among Tanzania
  3. Provide an opportunity to identify problems in the society
  4. Leaders pass important information to the public during these day
  5. Provide an opportunity for citizen to meet and share day
  6. These days mark important events in our country

 

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