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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH BASED ON TENSES

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH BASED ON TENSES

 


  DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH BASED ON TENSES
1. Simple Present Tense in the D.S. becomes simple past tense in the I.S.
- John said, “I will write a letter”. (D.S)
- John said that l wrote a letter. (I.S)
-  Mhini said, “I like teaching”
-Mhini said that he liked teaching”

2. Simple Past Tense in the D.S. becomes past perfect or remains unchanged in the I.S.
- Anna said, “I bought a car yesterday”. (D.S)
- Anna said that she had bought a car the day before. (I.S)
- Anna said that she bought a car the previous day (I.S.)
- Mariam said, “I killed a lion” (D.S)
-Mariam said that she had killed a lion (I.S)
- Mariam said that she killed a lion. (I.S)

3. Present Continuous in the D.S. becomes past continuous in the I.S.
-John said, “I am going to church”. (D.S)
-John said that he was going to church. (I.S)
-“I am writing a letter to my brother”, Majura said to Bundala (D.S)
- Majura told Bundala that he was writing a letter to his brother. (I.S)

4. Past Continuous in the D.S. becomes past perfect continuous in the I.S. or remains unchanged.
       -Nelson said, “I was playing cricket .D.S
-Nelson said that he had been playing  criket.I.S.
5. Present Perfect in the D.S. becomes past perfect in the I.S.
       Iddy said, “I have done my task”. (D.S)
       Iddy said that he had done his task. (I.S)
       “I have played netball”, Amina said. (D.S)
       Amina said that she had played netba. (I.S)

6. Present Perfect Continuous in the D.S. becomes past perfect continuous in the I.S.
     - He said, “I have been reading a novel”. (D.S)
    -  He said that he had been reading a novel. (I.S)
    - “I have been waiting for you, Mary” Samson said. (D.S)
   -  Samson told Mary that he had been waiting for her.(I.S)

7. Past perfect in the D.S. remains unchanged in the I.S
-“I had finished the work,” Shantel said to her teacher.
-Shantel told her teacher that she had finished the work.
-“We had slept already when you called.” She said to him
She told him that they had slept already when he called.

8. Past perfect continuous in the D.S remains unchanged in the I.S.
-David said, “I had been thinking of marrying a rich girl” (D.S.)
-David said that he had been thinking of marrying a rich girl. (I.S)
-Martha said to her mother, “-We had been doing exams the whole term.” (D.S.)
-Martha told her mother that they had been doing exams the whole term. (I.S)

9. Simple future tense
‘Will’ and ‘Shall’ are changed to ‘would’.
He said, “I will go to London tomorrow”. (D.S)
He said that he would go to London the next day. (I.S)
“I will marry when I want”, said Abooki. (D.S)
Abooki said that she would marry when she wanted. (I.S)

10. Modal
  Johns said, “I must go now,” (D.S)
Johns said that she had to go then. (I.S)
  “You may go now” I said to Shija.(D.S)
I told Shija that he might go then.(I.S)
  “You can take it tomorrow,” the teacher said to Moses.(D.S)
The teacher told Mosses that he could take it the following day.(I.S).
  “You had better consult a doctor,” mother said to me. (D.S)
Mother told me that I had better consult a doctor. (I.S)
  “You ought to love your parents, children” the pastor said. (D.S)
-The pastor told the children that they ought to love their parents. (I.S)
  Mhini said to Aisha, “I used to write love stories”. (D.S)
-Mhini told Aisha that he used to write love stories. (I.S)
  “You have to come back tomorrow,” the manager said to me. (D.S)
The manager told me that I had to go back the following day. (I.S)


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