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Regulation| Form three topic

Regulation| Form three topic

Regulation| Form three topic | Biology




Regulation is the process of controlling 
internal body environment of an organism to be more or less constant. 

Homeostasis is the regulation of the body sugar, excretory products of respiration and the body water in tissue.

Importance of regulation
i. Maintain the internal body system of an organism to be in a steady state
ii. Enable organism to adapt in the changing environments
iii. Enable organism to get rid of excess materials.
iv. Ensure survival of the organism.

Types of regulation
There are various type of regulation includes
1.THEMOREGULATION (Temperature regulation)
The process where by the body temperature of an organism is kept constant even if the surrounding temperature varies.

Heat in the body is produced by metabolic activities such as cellular respiration and the activities of the muscles

Regulation in temperature is done to avoid hyperthermia or hypothermia
Hyperthermia-abnormal high temperature
Hypothermia-drop of body temperature than normal.
Note – the temperature of the body should not exceed 45 degree cent- enzyme will denature

TYPES OF THEMOREGURATION

Temperature regulations follows under two groups namely:
i. Homoiothermic
ii. Poikilothemic

Homoiothermic
   Ability of organism to maintain a constant internal body temperature even when the surrounding temp. changes e.g. animal and birds
Poikilothemic
    Are animals whose body temperature changes in changes of the surroundings temperature. e.g. all animals except birds and mammals

Heat loss in Homoiothermic animals (endotherms)  is aided by four physical process which are
Conduction-Direct contact with each other
Radiation-No direct contact with the body
Evaporation-Changes of liquid to vapor
Convection.

MECHANISM OF TEMPERATURE REGULATION
Are those physiological and behavioral process where an organism performing to regulate their  body temperature in warm and cold temperature
       
Animal in warm or hot temperature
Physiological mechanism
(a) Vasodilation
       The process where blood vessels expand and be close to the skin surface therefore heat lost to the environment and finally cooling body temperature.


(b) Sweating During hot condition heat is lost from the body surface by converting water to water vapor hence cooling the body temperatures.
 (c) Relaxing of hair Muscles During the hot condition hair relax and allow heat to be given out through evaporation.

(d) Reduction of metabolic waste
The body metabolic waste is controlled by enzymes in the cell and those enzyme work upon the specific temperature, during hot condition cell metabolism decreases and by that mean body heat lowered.
(e)Panting
Some animals loose water in forms of water vapor by making their tongue hanging out to their mouth hence regulate heat on its body e.g. dogs

Behavioral mechanism
(a) Seeking shed
    During hot condition animal tent to find the cold place example shadow where can make their body cold.
b) Taking cold drinks
c) Wearing more or fewer clothes

Animal in cold condition
Physiological mechanism
(a) Vasoconstriction
 The process where by blood vessels decrease under the skin surface hence heat loss is reduced
b) Erection of hair muscles
 During the cold condition erector muscles of hair on the skin tend to contract and inhibit the loss of heat
c) Increase respiration
The rate of respiration results in the increase of heat production.
d) Shivering
This is the body biological process where by skeletal muscles contract.
e) Sweat gland stop producing sweat.
During cold condition little or no  sweat can be produced.

OSMOREGULATION IN MAMMALS

OSMOREGULATION
Is the control of water content in the body.
This process is very important since it maintain the constant osmotic pressure of the body fluid i.e. blood and tissue fluid.
If there is too much water in the blood  the osmotic pressure increases hence water will move from the blood to the cells, due to this the cell will swell and even bust thus metabolic activates stops.  

If water is too little the osmotic pressure decrease, water will move from cell into blood by osmosis causing cells to shrink and disrupt metabolic activities.

Note 
Metabolic activities is affected by the amount of water and salt in the blood.

MECHANISM OF OSMOREGULATION

When there is little water in the blood, the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the changes.
The pituitary gland secretes Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which travel to the kidney.
The kidney reabsorb water from the urine passes in the nephron and the urine will be more concentrated.

At the same time the hypothalamus send message to the conscious area of your body thus making you fell thirsty and you drink more water.
When you have enough water in the blood the hypothalamus detect it and the pituitary gland stop secreting ADH.

The results is  osmotic pressure less water is reabsorbed by the kidney and a large quantity of urine which is very dilute is produced, hence excess water is removed from the body

REGULATION OF SALT

The amount of mineral salt in the body is controlled by hormones,
Excess mineral salts dissolve in in water and are given  out as urine or sweat through sweat poles in the skin
Water sweat evaporates leaving the salt behind on the surface of the skin.
When the amount of salt in the blood is reduced the hormone for a particular salt is produced which stimulate the uptake of the ions by gut and reabsorbed in the kidney.

FACTORS AFFECTING CONTENT OF SALT AND WATER IN THE BODY

i. Amount of water taken in the body
ii. Climatic condition
iii. Amount of salt taken in the body
iv. Hormonal abnormalities e.g. ADH

BLOOD SUGAR REGULATION

Glucose is the simplest form of sugar that can be used by the body to generate energy for various body activities.
Regulation of blood sugar is controlled by two hormone namely:
(a) Insulin
(b) Glucagon
 Those hormone is produce in the Islet of Langerhans

When there is excess glucose in the blood  beta cells in the islet of langerhans produces more insulin and less glucagon.
Below or above normal of glucose is caused by the pancreases failure to produce insulin or insulin produced in normal amount but target cells become no longer responsible to the insulin, this results to Diabetes mellitus.

SYMPTOM OF DIABETUS MELLITUS

(i) Frequency urination
(ii) Extremely thirst and hunger
(iii)Weight loss
(iv)Slow healing of wound
(v)Dry itchy skins
(vi) Blurred vision

Factors involved in development of diabetes

  • Age 
  • Obesity
  • Physical activities
  • Family history of diabet
Treatment
  • Proper diet
  • Physical exercise
  • Insulin injection

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