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CULTURAL VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS| Form four topic

CULTURAL VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS| Form four topic

 CULTURAL VALUES AND LIFE SKILLS | Form four topic

Meaning of Cultural Values

Cultural values are constructs or a set of expectations of how people are supposed to live in a certain society to preserve its cohesion and continued existence. In other way, cultural values can be described as principles or ideals that people in a particular culture cherish for the sake of social cohesion and existence. The cultural values in a particular society, must be promoted and preserved

Promotion and Preservation of Cultural Values

Promotion of culture is an act which involves the raising and encouraging the progress and growth of our cultural values in our societies.

Preservation of culture is an act of protecting our cultural values from being damaged and interfered with other culture.

Culture should be preserved and promoted at all levels. In Tanzania for instance, Ministry of culture was established in 1962 in order to promote and preserve our culture. However, it changed names over years, but its basic objectives remain unchanged.

Importance of Promoting and Preserving Cultural Values

i.                 Maintain our national identity. Cultural values are worthy to preserve and promote because they constitute people’s identity of their nation.

ii.               To provide a foundation for stable governance. The cultural values must be promoted and preserved because they are the foundation of the society, the source of unity and continued existence of people in a given culture.

iii.             To maintain our useful value and equality. Cultural values are worthy to promote and preserve because they have the potential to minimize or eliminate segregation and bring equality among the people

iv.              To maintain our cultural heritage. Cultural values are worthy to promote and preserve because they help to protect our country from foreign culture through cultural heritage.

v.               Helps to identify what is good and what is bad. Cultural values are to be promoted and protected because they are basis of what is right and what is wrong

The Roles of Institutions and other groups in Promoting and Preserving Cultural values in Tanzania

Since independence, Tanzania had developed various measures to promote and preserve her culture The following are the roles of different groups in promotion and preservation of our culture;

i. The National Kiswahili Council. It was established in August 9 1967 with its major roles being to promote and develop Kiswahili as the national language. It facilitates the use of Kiswahili in all areas.

Today Kiswahili is spoken and understood by almost all Tanzanians and other neighboring countries such as Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda and Congo DR. ii. The National Sports Council. It was established in 1967. The role of this council is to promote, develop and control all amateur sports in the country.

iii.             The National Film and Censorship Board. This organ had one main role that was to censor films before they are shown. To censor a film means to examine it and decide whether it is suitable for the public or not.

iv.             National Arts Council. It was established for the revival, promotion and development of arts and crafts in Tanzania. It has the role of facilitating the production and consumption of good art work and services and to encourage creativity.

v.               Department of Museums, Antiquities and National Archive. These are department that preserve national heritage in form of cultural treasure and writing. Hence, they stimulate much cultural enthusiasm among people.

Factors that contribute to the stagnant of Promoting and Preserving of our Culture

i.               People prefer foreign dressing style. Many people in Tanzania especially youth wear the based western closes like tight trousers, miniskirts etc. These kinds of dressing are not part of Tanzanian culture.

ii.             Presence of foreign music. Many youth in Tanzania support songs which imitate the western music.

Music like pop songs are not part of Tanzanian culture iii. The movie industry imitates foreign style. The stories, themes and characters are not traditional, they seem to mimic the western film industry. The youth themselves do not prefer the films which contain the traditional themes.

iv.             Little emphasis from the dedicated authorities that preserve our culture. The dedicated authorities provide little emphasis to the youth on the preservation of our culture. This made many youth to lack the awareness about their culture.

v.               Effects of globalization. Many youth are not preserving their culture because of the impacts of globalization. Globalization changed completely the way of life to many youth in Tanzania. This makes the youth to lack the interest to preserve their culture.

Challenges facing promotion and preservation of cultural values in Tanzania

i. Colonial legacy. Many Tanzanians are victims of praising the foreign culture. They still have the attitude of being inferior to the white men. ii. Lack of awareness. The large numbers of people are not well informed on valuing their culture. Many of the people regard our culture as a primitive ways of life and sufficient to solve their problems

iii.                         Poor leadership. Some of the leaders are not committed to the task of promoting and preserving of our culture. Hence they have failed to establish the policies which can promote our cultural values.

iv.                          Shortage of financial resource. This problem limited the people and government to conduct research concerning with the promoting and preserving of our culture.

v.                           Globalization. This was due to the development of science and technology. The interaction among the people in the world brought different cultural interaction and history as well as the beliefs. This contributing in the hindrance of our culture. A good example can be observed in the wedding ceremonies and burial ceremonies.

Measures to mitigating the challenges facing the promotion and preservation of our cultural values

i.                 Promotion the use of our national language. National language should be spoken by all people in the country and should be used in school as the medium of instruction from lower level to higher levels of education

ii.               Protect our handcraft industries against foreign good. For example, promoting the consumption of the good produced by SIDO. This will make people to consume the goods which are manufactured in the country.

iii.             Encourage positive traditional dances. Traditional dances should be assisted in composing and recording. People must be encouraged to understand their traditional dances which are valuable in their life.

iv.              Popularization of local culture in mass media. All the medias in the country such as radio and television should undertake necessary actions to popularize our positive cultural practices in the country.

v.               Considering the arts and crafts skills in the educational curriculum. This will help the students in various schools to understand the various arts and craft skills which will be able to appreciate and preserve them.

Culture of Preventive, Care and Maintenance of personal and public properties

Preventive care and maintenance of personal and public properties can be defined as a system of planning maintenance which involves inspection and making necessary modification so that properties can be used for a longer period. Maintenance involves timely repairing of property before it gets damage completely. It also involves the system, processes and manpower required to manage the life cycle of all acquired properties. The main objective of culture of preventive, care and maintenance of personal and properties is to make people able to practice the attitude of preventive care and maintenance of personal and public properties as the part of daily life.

Importance of culture of preventive, care and maintenance of personal and public properties

i.                 Ensure safety and protection of the properties. Department of maintenance will make regular maintenance of the properties and protect them from unnecessary damage

ii.               Reduces the cost of major repair. It saves money for other expenses that could have been used for the purchasing of other properties that are needed by the people.

iii.             Conserving environment. It helps to preserve the environment in a community by reducing the pilling or random throwing dumping of the damaged properties of the school

iv.              Promote tourism. Maintained properties remain in good condition, thus attract people to make tourism if the preserved properties are higher values to both local and foreign tourist.

v.               Inheriting the properties to the next generation. It enables people to inherit the properties to their young ones or to the future generation for the future use. This help to reduce the cost of buying new properties.

vi.              Ensure good conditions of the properties. It helps to keep the property in a good condition for a long time, hence the properties seem to be profitable to the owner and users.

Ways of ensuring preventive, care and maintenance of personal and public property

i.                 Cleanliness of the property. There must be regular cleanliness of a property in order to make it clean and attractive to the people. So in order to ensure caring of a property, regular cleaning is needed.

ii.               Making frequent check up and inspection of the property. There must be make frequent check up of a particular property in order to discover the leakage and weakness of a particular property

iii.             Regular maintenance of the property. The regular maintenance of a particular property minimizes the cost of repairing the property. So in order to ensure caring of a property, regular maintenance is required.

iv.              Making frequent maintenance of a property. In order to ensure caring of a property, frequent maintenance is required that creates conducive environment to users.

v.               Provision of mass education. The people should be educated on the importance of making regular care and maintenance of the existing properties so as to ensure and prolong the life span of the properties.

Consequence of neglecting timely repairing and maintenance of personal and public property

          i.   Increase the cost of repairing and maintenance of the property. Neglecting timely maintenance

may lead to the increase of the cost in repairing a particular property. Timely maintenance of a property reduce cost in repairing and increase long life of a property ii. Decrease the durability or life span of property. The failure to make maintenance to neglected property decreases the life span of a particular property which may in turn necessitate the loss of property or unplanned buying new one. iii. Reduce quality or worthy of the property. Neglecting maintenance of a property reduce the quality of a particular property and make it can make the property less attractive to the people. iv. Environmental destruction. Neglecting timely maintenance of a property can lead to the environmental destruction due to the random throwing of the damaged property

v. Disappearance of some important information. Neglecting timely maintenance of a property may lead to the loss of the important information and various properties.

QUESTIONS

1.      As an expert from the national arts council of Tanzania (BASATA), use five points to convince the community on the need to preserve and promote a Tanzanian culture

2.      Since independence, Tanzania had developed various measures to promote and preserve her culture. In the light of this statement, assess the roles of different groups and institutions which were formed to promote and preserve of our culture

3.      Despite of heavy efforts from the government, Tanzania still suffer from the problem of neglecting the promotion and preservation of our culture. Give five points to explain the root causes of this problem

4.      The government of Tanzania is now focusing on adopting the promotion and preservation of her culture to meet with the challenges that face many people in the country. As one of the expert from Ministry of culture, Arts and sports, suggest five factors to be undertaken to ensure the achievement of that goal

5.      The new head master of Haki secondary school found that, there are many damaged tables and chairs in the store room of the school due to the absence of department that deals with the maintenance of the school properties. As a form four student, assess five advantages of having the department of maintenance in your school.

6.      Suppose you have been appointed as the head of department of maintenance at Sali’s Company Limited, explain five ways that you can apply to ensure the caring and maintaining the properties of the company.

7.      In the process of assessing the school properties, the headmaster found that, there is the weakness in the department of maintenance. Use five points to explain the problems that can be happen due to the neglecting timely care and maintenance of the school properties.

Topic three: COURTSHIP IN AFRICAN CULTURE

 Courtship

Courtship can be defined as a formal and special kind of intimate relationship between a man and a woman that may lead to marriage. It is a condition in which a couple gets to know each other and develop a deep relationship before getting married. In African context, a moral and ethical courtship must observe all principles and cultural protocols governing marital affairs of the respective community. Good courtship should be well arranged by parents of both sides of a couple in accordance to custom.

Factors that Influence Courtship

i. Intention to marry. Intention to marry constitutes one of the motivation for courtship. Such intention not comes accidentally, it need time to think and feel from heart. Without intention to marry courtship become meaningless. Indeed, there is no meaningful of courtship in absence of the intention to marry. ii. Love. The purpose of marriage should be really love when the couple get slowly know each other. There can be no meaningful courtship if there is no love. Love is understood as a profound adoration and affection for another person.

iii.             Willingness. Willingness means readiness and preparedness to do something and it plays a very important role in influencing courtship. The courting couple should be prepared to get marriage at all conditions.

iv.              Moral maturity. The moral maturity of a person contributes to the courtship. A person who is morally mature is aware that, dating is neither safe and desirable nor justified by society. Such person knows that it is not morally good to date just for bodily pleasure

v.               Age and biological maturity. Courtship is not supposed to involve young and school aged children. Age and biological maturity are important considerations for courtship. The intention of courtship is to prepare partners for marriage, such practices should be limited to mature person at least in terms of affording basic livelihood and ability to provide for the family.

Factors for Good Courtship

i.                 Considering the sex of courting partners. In order to make good courtship, it must be consider the sex of the courting partners. The partners (couple) must be of opposite sex ( man and woman or boy and girl)

ii.               Maintain abstention in the relationship. It is important to take into consideration the abstinence between the courting partners. Abstinence should dominate the relation. No sexual intercourse before marriage

iii.             Observing legality of the relationship between the courting partners. It is important to consider the legality of the courting partners in order to avoid the confusion in a community. The relation should not be questionable by the family members of both sides

iv.              Considering the common interests of the courting partners. It is important to consider the common interests between the courting partners. The courting couple must have the common interests such as religion background and common hobbies.

v.               Considering the age size of the courting partners. The age of couple should not less than 20 years and age difference should not too big. Example over 25 years means man has 45 years while woman has 20 years.

Importance of Courtship

i.                 It is the good preparation of marriage. Courtship makes the courting couples to prepare themselves for good marriage. This is because there are lot of things to be done before marriage by couple, relatives, neighbors and even friends. Partners need enough time to make various preparation and arrangement for their marriage.

ii.               Helps the couple to know each other before marriage. The time for courtship is important for the couple to get to know each other better and have an understanding of their partnership It is used to give couple the chance to study each other

iii.             Develops understanding and acceptance. One of the important element that contributes to the success of a relationship is understanding and acceptance. Because courtship allows the partners to know and value each other, it consequently gives them time to settle and moderate their differences.

iv.              It develops self-discipline of the partners. Courtship provides the couple with an opportunity to develop self-discipline. Without self- discipline, a man or woman can be disqualified by their partner or members of the family. Courting partners will develop self respect and discipline in a community.

v.               Formality. Courtship introduces a measure of formality into the new relationship. In a real sense, courtship is a semi-public announcement that the two people are exploring the possibility of future life together as husband and wife.

Dating

Dating is the stage of romantic relationships typically between two individuals with the aim of assessing each others’ suitability as partner in an intimate relationship. However dating may not necessarily leads to marriage. Partners can date and then go separate ways. Because of that dating is often discouraged in many societies. It is considered immoral and dangerous especially when it involves young people. It can lead to negative consequences such as unwanted pregnancies, distress and conflicts

Negative Impacts of Dating

i.                 May lead to early pregnancy. Dating may lead to pregnancy when two dating partners engage in unprotected sexual practice. This may happen among students as well.

ii.               Spread of diseases. Some teenage girls and boys are likely to be infected by sexually transmitted diseases after engaging in unprotected premarital sexual relationships. Unprotected sexual affairs may lead to the spread of such as HIV/AIDS

iii.             Poor academic performance. Most of students may fail in their studies because they lack basic skills on self-management as they indulge in relationships at premature age. Consequently, they concrete on love affairs leaving behind school activities.

iv.              Can lead to early marriage. Because of high rate of sexual desires to teenagers, they tend to persuade each other to sneak away from their homes or schools for sexual affairs, which finally leads them to premature marriages.

v.               Social disobedience. Premature relationship develops the habit of disrespect to the society. Some of the young boys and girls tend to disdain social issues and respect to parents and teachers because of ill perceptions on marital relationships.

Challenges facing the Partners in Courtship

i.                 Differences in personality and attitudes. There are few partners who have the same understanding in all issues of life. Differences in personality and attitudes between partners may lead to misunderstanding and conflicts in their courting

ii.               Character problem. Many people are not willing to work on the character problems and become better person. Some people believe that if they are in a relationship, they have to be accepted the way they are without considering how their lifestyle, characters and deeds may hurt their partners.

iii.             Selfishness. Selfishness is one of the major challenges facing human beings in different life situations. Some courtships fail to prosper due to selfishness which often prevails in terms of inability to share plans and resources.

iv.              Desire for pre-marital sex. It is important to understand that, courtship is not marriage. In that regard, the partners in courtship are not expected to start engaging in pre- marital sex

v.               Anger and bitterness. Anger and bitterness have done more harm than good in many relationships. Anger and bitterness often associated with lack of self-management skills, short-temperedness and ego

Partner Selection

The task to choose a lifelong partner starts with understanding your priorities in partnership. As an individual, it is important to be absolutely clear about what you want from your partner.

Factors to Consider in Choosing Partner

i.                 Respect for people’s right and dignity. The selection of a partner to marry should not be carried out randomly and arbitrarily without paying attention to the essential elements that matter in a life of a couple. One of the tips that one should consider when selecting a partner is the attitude of respect.

ii.               Possession of interpersonal skills. A loving relationship between partners is not a one-directional affair. It requires each partner to consistently share values, goals and life plans for mutual benefit.

iii.             Moral integrity. It is important to consider moral integrity in selection of lifelong partner. A partner who has moral integrity, is a good companion. Moral integrity includes being honest, trustworthy, transparent, self-discipline and being accountable.

iv.              Being comfortable with parents and family members. Partners in a loving relationship, are not in an isolation state. They must be concerned with respective members of their families who contributed significantly to their growth and development.

v.               Intellectual capacity. A person’s ability to understand realities of life is essential in the choice of a partner. Some partners have very high capacity of understanding life challenges than others. In that situation, it is advised to choose a partner with good intellectual capacity.

vi.              Ability to control anger and aggressiveness. Human beings are not perfect at all, they have some weaknesses. In a relationship each partner has strengths and weaknesses. Partners annoy each other sometimes because of bad arguments which cause tension and emotional distress. So, in the choice of a partner, it is important to select one who is capable of controlling anger and other negative emotions. In a courtship, if a partner tends to be short-tempered, sometimes without compelling reasons and becoming uncontrollable, one should think twice before one getting married to such person. This is because, marriage with such a partner is likely to be unsustainable and abusive.

QUESTIONS

1.      Courtship is a result of positive relationship among the people in a society. In five points, explain the factors that should be considered for good courtship among the couple

2.      Many youth today are engaging in the courtship for the preparation of marriage. What five factors you think influence the youth to start this relationship?

3.      Assume you have given the chance to advice the courting couple in your family as a way of preparing good marriage. What five advantages of courtship will you most consider?

4.      “Courtship is one among of the positive relationship between two partners which make good preparation for the marriage”. With example from your community, describe five different challenges that can face the courting partners during this relationship.

5.      Many youth in our communities today develop the dating relationship without legal agreements from their parents which sometimes cause many social conflicts in the societies. With examples from your community, explain five factors why this relationship is considered unacceptable in many communities in Tanzania?

6.      The elders of Mchukuuni village were explaining to their youth in the village social gathering about how their previous societies used to find partners for marriage. As one among of the youth who attended there, identify five ways of searching for a lifelong partner you learn from your elders.

Topic four: MARRIAGE IN AFRICAN CULTURE

Marriage

Marriage is a voluntary, legally and social authorized bond or union between man and woman to become husband and wife after fulfilling the required conditions. Marriage is the complete process which includes the acceptance of the parents of both sides and normally is accompanied with the wedding ceremony. Marriage is regulated by laws, rules, customs, beliefs and attitudes that prescribe the rights and duties of the partners and accord to their offspring. Marriage helps the partners to avoiding cohabitation, however a marriage can come to an end because of death of either man or woman, thereafter the court or authority shall give decree of annulment or divorce to the surviving partners.

Types of Marriages

There are three types of marriages in Tanzania which are classified according to the legal status, these are; a. Religious marriages

b.      Civil marriages

c.       Tradition or Customary marriages.

A.     Religious marriages. These are the marriages which are legalized according to the religion laws. These marriages in Tanzania context fall under two main religions that are Islamic religion and Christian religion.

B.      Civil marriages. These are the marriages which are legalized according to the civil laws of the country. Most of these marriages involved the couples from different religion faith. In Tanzania these marriages are established according to the marriage Act of 1971 and the District Commissioner’s Office is responsible to officiate such kind of marriages.

C.      Traditional/Customary marriages. These are the marriages which are legalized according to the tradition and culture of a particular society. Traditional marriages in many of the African societies are different types such as

Ø        consanguineous marriages (cousin marriage), it is occur when biological related partners who are second cousins or closer get marriage

Ø        elopement marriages (elope/run away marriages), it is occur when a girl decides to visit her boyfriend and stays with him expecting to get marriage

Ø        Sororate marriages, it is happens when a man decides to marry the sister of his wife either after the death of his wife or when his wife has proven infertile 

Ø        A woman marriage. It is happen when an old woman (most of them are rich women) decides to marry young woman. After the marriage, that old woman find a man who could establish love affairs with the young woman and bear the children

Ø        Levirate marriage (widow inherited marriage). It is happen when the brother of the deceased man is obliged to marry his brother’s widow.

Motives of Marriages

i.                    Happiness, purity or eternal life. In religious thoughts, marriage between a man and woman is ordained by God and not human beings. This means that the institution of marriage was established by God. Marriage is designed for purity. Human beings face temptations every day, so the marriage gives human beings the support to defeat temptations and sexual immorality. Therefore, the purpose is to save human beings from eternal punishment.

ii.                   Procreation. This involves the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring. For most believers, the desire to bear children is one of the fundamental motives for marriage In religious thinking, God is the creator of all human beings. In creating man and woman, God wanted them to participate legally in the process of reproducing children for the survival and continuation of the human society

iii.                 Mutual love and support. Adherents of religion believe that no man or woman was created by God to live a solitary life. It reaches a time in life where a person who is physically, intellectually, emotionally and spiritually matured has to marry. Underpinning this, is the belief that there is no person who is perfect or even self-sufficient. Understanding human nature in this way, motivates people to marry because it makes possible for the couple to foster the love that exists between them. Also they do so because they want to support each other in lifelong journey. That why even those who hear about the challenges of marriage still want to get married.

iv.                 Age. Age motivating people to marry. In many societies, women prefer to marry men who are older than them due to the belief that older men are matured enough to be able to settle and provide for basic livelihood for the family. There is a certain age  reached by both boys and girls which need to get marriage, although girls may get marriage earlier than boys

v.                   Physical characteristics to both male and female. There are some of the physical features of both men and women motivate them to get marriage. That features may include beauty, race and colour, female and male sex identity

vi.                 Economic motivation. Married couple are often treated by society as a financial unit. Societies believe that, being financially responsible for each other is part of what marriage means. Understanding marriage in this way encourages some people to enter into marriage as a way of sharing financial responsibilities.

Importance of Marriages

i. Creates unity among the families. Marriage promote the sense of unity in solving various problems ii. Help to raise and enhance status of the married partners. Marriage helps to maintain social status, norms, customs and tradition.

iii.             Source of new relationship. Marriage creates new relationship in the family

iv.              Source of getting children. Marriage brings new members in the community

v.               Helps to create social and economic cooperation among the married partners. Marriage creates common find between husband and wife

Relationship between Courtship and Marriage

i.              Marriage is the highest stage of courtship ii.             Courtship is the good preparation of marriage iii.  Courtship let the people to become husband and wife

iv.                 Courtship is the basic of good marriage as it gives the couple time to study each other

v.                   Courtship brings the blessing of parents and relatives in the marriage due to the cooperation of parents.

vi.                 Marriage approve the social relation that was existed during courtship vii.      Courtship is the transition from living single to a married life.

EARLY MARRIAGE

Early or pre- mature marriages are those marriages in which one married partner or both have not reached the proper age acceptable for marriage. In Tanzania, the legal age for marriage is 18 years. Any marriage of a person below that age is considered as early or pre-mature marriage.

Customs and Beliefs that Encouraged Early Marriages

Customs are beliefs that are passed on from one generation to another. They include things like obedience, greetings and punctuality which are acceptable to be practiced in the society.

Beliefs are things that are thought to be true by a certain community. Different societies have their customs and beliefs about marriage.

The following are some Customs and Beliefs that encourage Early marriages.

i. Payment of bride price.  Bride price is a gift receives the parents of a girl in terms of money, livestock or land. This convinces parents to be greedy hence force their daughters to marry in immaturity age. ii. Maltreating the girls who live within the families. This may encourage Early marriages because the girls who are maltreated may not able to tolerate such treatment hence decided to get marriage to leave the family

iii.                 Gender discrimination in education. Some educating boys rather than girls and some parents believe that, educating girls is wastage of resources. The parents forced their girls to drop out from school in favor of their brothers. After leaving school, the next step for girls is usually marriages.

iv.                 Tradition initiation. Traditional practices such as “unyago” prepare the girls for marriage because it taught the girls how to take care of a marriage at early age. This makes them to know that they are grown up hence married at immaturity age.

v.                   Inheritance of the properties. In some societies do not allow a boy to inherit a property if he is not married. This encourages some boys to enter into early marriages as a condition of inheriting the property.

vi.                 Ignorance of some parents. Some parents marry off their young daughters because they do not know the dangers of earl marriage that may encounter their young daughters.

vii.               The beliefs of living the descent life. The belief of married early lead to the living the descent life.

Some society believe that if a young will late to get married will involved into prostitution.

Problems Associated with Early Marriages

i.                    Complication during delivery. This is because, the reproductive organ of the young girl is not matured for bearing the baby. This lead to the destruction of the girl’s body.

ii.                   Increase of poverty. This is because the couple are young and do not able to have reliable means of getting income which become difficult for caring their children

iii.                 Spread of HIV/AIDS. This is due to the fact that, the young are not able to make good decisions on marital issues like going to check up for their health in turn lead to acquire diseases like AIDS.

iv.                 Break down families. This is because, the couple are young and do not have experience, knowledge and tolerance of rearing the children and handling the family problems. This lead to the separation of the family.

v.                   Increase of illiterate people. This is because early marriages prevent the girls to continue with their education since they were forced to get married earlier. In some societies the young girls are forcefully removed from school to be married off.

vi.                 It accelerates unplanned pregnancy. This is due to the fact that, the girls are not well educated about family planning therefore a couple will have the big number of children in their family.

Measures to mitigate early marriages

i.                 Public education must be provided. Provision of education about the danger of early marriage to both young boys and girls

ii.               To stop negative cultural practices. Abandon negative cultural practices that encourage the early marriages like female genital mutilation and inheritance

iii.             To enact the laws that defend the girls. Enacting the laws that will prevent the existence of early marriages

iv.              Effective implementation of poverty alleviation strategies. Poverty alleviation strategies must be effectively strengthened that will help to prevent economic hardship to the parents

v.               Provision of education opportunities to the girls. Increasing formal education opportunity to the girls and give them first priority in all aspects of life

STABLE MARRIAGE

Concept of Stable Marriage

Stable Marriage is the marriage which all its members are maintaining the condition of marriage. Stable marriage exists where the couple is united under the rules of marriage.

Foundations for Stable Marriage

i. It must be the marriage of joyful and respectable ii.  Both man and woman must play their roles accordingly

iii. It should obey the rules of the marriage as they were put forward in holy books of religion iv. It should not be one side marriage. It should be of two personalities sharing common things such as love, respect and dignity.

Conditions for Stable Marriage

i. Consent. Agreements between bride and bridegroom on what they expect to achieve in the marriage ii. Trust each other, none of them should do things that are contrary to the expectation of the other iii. Love each other. Marriage partners must have affection for each other. Love is an important component of a stable marriage

iv.                 Tolerance and understanding towards the weakness of other

v.                   Transparency. Marriage partners should be open with each other. It is wrong to keep secret which may endanger the marriage.

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